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研究報告

更新日期: 2013-10-30
點閱數: 2,304

臺灣周邊海域魩鱙資源變動及管理機制調整研究 (101)

年度 2012
計劃名稱 臺灣周邊海域魩鱙資源變動及管理機制調整研究
中文摘要 計畫目標: 魩及鱙魚為台灣經濟海域之鯷及鯡科小體型魚類之集合名詞,魩為仔魚,鱙為稚魚,均為重要的經濟魚類資源。 魩鱙漁業是臺灣和日本沿岸漁業的特色之一。 魩及鱙魚也是沿岸海洋生態系中之構成及功能性要員,其族群量之大小悠關生態系之棲位多寡,進而影響生態系之產能及穩定,也悠關上層漁業,如鯖、鯵漁業之資源波動。 魩仔漁業所捕獲之魚種約等於傳統底拖網漁業之數目,但其生質量及數量組成則不同。 魩仔漁業之主要漁獲組成為鯷及鯡科之表層洄游魚,而非鯷及非鯡科之仔魚則通稱為混獲魚種。 除非在鯷科魚種孵化之頂峰時期(不超過兩週),均有數十至百餘種具經濟價值之魚種混同罹網,成為混獲魚種。 魩仔魚共有八個主要魚種(以日漁獲量計,一度超過5%),其前三位為異葉公鯷、刺公鯷及日本鯷。 本計畫之目標是探討魩鱙漁業之資源量、漁獲努力量及漁獲量之時間(年及季)及空間(漁場)之變化。   架構: 為有效管理該漁業,中央政府於1999年盼地方政府依會議結論,辦理開放漁業之公告,並加強管理;嗣後並決定2001年5月底為縣政府公告開放之截止日。 縣政府在規範中明訂所轄漁區之漁船數、容許總漁獲量及禁漁期(06/01~08/31 - 花蓮、宜蘭、臺北及基隆,06/16~09/15 - 桃園、新竹、臺中、高雄及屏東)等限制條件。 同時訂定本項漁業之開放為期五年,此期間迭有全面禁止之呼籲。 2002,中央政府擬於2005年底各縣政府核准之執照屆滿時,即於稍後之2006年1月1日全面禁止魩鱙漁業。 嗣後,慮及漁民生計,延緩全面禁漁之議,加註之作業許可遂延長至2008年12月31日。 為減輕漁民生計上之衝擊,2009年之政策轉為有效管理之輔導性措施。 因此,本計畫之重要工作是調查、掌握在各漁場活動之相關縣市之努力量容量及實際漁業規模大小(漁獲量及漁獲努力量)。   預期效益: 為方便有效管理之施行,產銷班之建立及總許可漁獲量(TAC)之制定為重要關鍵,本計畫已於前兩年,對東北及西南漁場進行TAC之估算,做為產銷班作業自律之機制。 本年計畫擬基於以前對東北及西南漁場所做出結果加以檢討,並促資源管理臻合理及有效。 計畫執行後之效益為:估得管理所需之參數,分別為漁獲努力容量(capacity)、漁獲努力量、漁獲量、魚種組成及體長頻度分布等,其成果則以混獲率、總容許漁獲量及最適漁業規模呈現。
英文摘要 Objectives: Larval anchovy is an important resource for coastal artisan fishery in Taiwan, although harvesting fish at early stages may impose crucial impact on fragile resource, and cause conservation concerns. The fisheries that catch larval anchovy are called "Bua fishery" in Taiwan, and they utilize specialized fishing types fit to various coastal geo-morph. The Bua catches are appreciated with high prices, resulted in very complicated cases governmental regulations. From different perspectives , both larval and adult anchovies are important mid-way component in coastal marine ecosystem, where they function as bio-energy converter between plankton and higher trophic levels. The fluctuation of anchovy population influences not only the amount of fisheries catches, but also the stability of coastal ecosystem. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism for the formation of apt fishing sites may relate to global meteorological events, such as ENSO and typhoon. The species richness of Bua catches resembles that of traditional bottom trawls, but with different percentage of species composition in biomass. The Bua catch is primarily composed of engraulia and clupeid fishes, however tens to hundred “non-Bua” species are also caught, among which some are of economic importance. Major Bua fishes, accounted by more than 5% in any single day, are identified to 8 species. And, the top 3 species composed about 90% of total catches; i.e., Encrasicholina heteroloba, Encr. punctifer and Engraulis japonicus. The objectives of this project are getting uptodate information to assist fisheries management, including 1) to estimate the stock size of major species, 2) to explore the fishing effort and catches, and 3) to quantify their spatio-temporal variations.   Frameworks: Fish compositions in two major fishing seasons of spring and autumn are comprehensively documented, however population size of major species is dynamic. For effective regulate the fishing activity at a suitable level, county governments set the limits of vessel number, total allowable catches and no-catch period (NCP) for their fishermen. In the meanwhile, the licensing time was set to a period of 5 years. Phasing-out of the Bua fishery is also announced that was effective on January 1, 2006 at first. However, for the sake of mitigating difficult position in local economy, deferring was put forward to extend the licensing period until December 31, 2008. In 2009, effective regulation of the fisheries is established to replace the then phasing-out hoping to reduce socio-economic impact. To facilitate effective regulation, the major tasks of this project are set to assess potential fishing capacity, and realized fishing effort and catches.    Expected usefulness: This project works on three major fishing grounds: the northeast, northwest and southwest in sequences. In the end, this project will get following parameters: fishing capacity, fishing effort, catches, catches composition and length frequencies. We will analyze these parameters to conclude the by-catch rate, total allowable catch and optimal size of the fisheries.
計畫編號 101農科-11.2.1-漁-F2(4)
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