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研究報告

更新日期: 2015-02-09
點閱數: 1,463

我國漁業產業經營與行銷之研究-我國大宗養殖水產品運銷通路及本益調查研究

年度 2013
計劃名稱 我國漁業產業經營與行銷之研究-我國大宗養殖水產品運銷通路及本益調查研究
中文摘要 近年來,我國養殖漁業的年產量介於25至30萬公噸間,年產值約新臺幣300億元,佔我國漁業總產量約三成。惟就養殖漁民而言,除了面臨生產成本與市場價格的波動外,運銷通路結構也影響養殖漁民營運很重要的因素之一。本研究透過次級資料的蒐集以及養殖場與通路的現場訪查結果發現,與以往主計處所進行的調查相比顯示,在養殖生產端,販運商仍占有通路上的優勢,惟隨加工技術進步,加工廠為縮短運銷通路,有部分逕向養殖漁民購買,且傳統運銷通路的魚市場與批發商其運銷比重已明顯下滑;另消費者因受惠資訊及物流的便利,各階段通路結構皆能直接銷售給消費者,使得運銷通路較以往調查更多元化。此外,在中間通路商的益本分析上,產地販運商的益本比以牡蠣的1.24為最高,金目鱸魚的1.13次之,其他則介於1.02至1.05之間,而七星鱸魚的益本比為0.98。加工廠及批發商的益本比多介於1.05至1.15之間,而零售通路的益本比則為所有運銷通路中最高。 漁業為我國重要民生產業之一,在全球貿易日益自由化及後ECFA時代影響下,我國以小漁為主之經營型態難達經濟規模。此外,近來全球氣候異常,水產品供需失調與價格波動益形嚴重,加上消費者對食品衛生安全、地產地銷及節能減碳等觀念興起,實需政府投入輔導大宗養殖漁業建立穩定、效率及衛生安全之產銷供應鏈。政府未來應朝強化養殖業者與通路商、加工廠之間的溝通管道,增加供應鏈之間的資訊透明化;鼓勵加工業者開發加工產品,必要時可由政府協助加工與通路業者進場調節產地與通路價格;定期與加工及養殖業者進行宣導或教育訓練,讓業者瞭解養殖產業的經營風險;落實產地標示,以減少國外水產品的衝擊;深耕產業與產銷班組織、促進養殖業者與生態環境的友善,以及改善產銷資訊的透明化等方面著手,以利運銷通路健全發展。
英文摘要 Recently, annual aquaculture production in Taiwan about 250-300 thousand tons, and annual value about 30 billion NT dollars, which provide ~30% of total fisheries production. For fish culture, fishermen not only face the variation of production cost and market price, the structure of market channel also plays an important role for them.  This study collected the secondary data and channel investigation of the major aquaculture products, which including Tilapia, milkfish, clam, oyster, Silver perch, Japanese seaperch and grouper. Compare to former investigation conducted by Directorate General of budget, Accounting and Statistics, our results show that the shipper still takes the advantage in the distribution channels, and the fish market and wholesalers of traditional marketing channels has been a marked decline in the proportion of its marketing share.  In addition, due to consumer can benefit from abound information and logistics facilities, and thus various stages of channel could sold directly to consumers. On the other hand, the distribution channels of benefit-cost analysis, results show that the shipper benefit-cost ratio of oysters is the highest with 1.24, and the second is Silver perch with benefit-cost ratio 1.13 , tilapia, milkfish, clams and grouper are between 1.02 to 1.05, however, Japanese seaperch benefit-cost ratio is 0.98. Otherwise, the benefit-cost ratio of processing plants and wholesalers are about 1.05 to 1.15, while the retail channel of benefit-cost ratio was the highest among all marketing channels. Fisheries is one of the key industry for public, however, due to small scale, it is hard to adjust to era of free trade and the post ECFA periods. Besides, climate change also challenges the balance of supply and demand, and the fluctuation of market price. Owing to the rising concept of food safety, carbon reduction, it is important for government to assist the aquaculture industry to build up a stable, efficient, and sanitary supply chain management. To achieve this objective, it is necessary to enhance the communication among producer, wholesaler, and processors, and their capability to ease the market and price. Besides, in order to strength the marketing channel, it is also important to provide advanced education for risk management, product labeling, information transparency, organization enhancement, and eco-friendly environment for the aquaculture industry.
計畫編號 102農科-5.1.2-漁-F1
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