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研究報告

更新日期: 2015-02-09
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後ECFA時期漁產貿易管理之研究

年度 2013
計劃名稱 後ECFA時期漁產貿易管理之研究
中文摘要         2001年臺灣的小三通管理辦法實施之前,中國大陸對臺貿易依1994年的對臺小額貿易辦法,對臺小額貿易對臺灣來說屬非官方的非法貿易行為;2001年後雙方貿易各依<小三通管理辦法>及<對臺小額貿易管理辦法> 做為課徵關稅及檢疫管理的官方管理依據。2009年臺灣的大三通政策更大開放本島及馬公主要港口及機場作為兩岸班機直航場站及直航港口,至此,兩岸之間的貿易,因交通運輸時程大幅縮短,單次運量大幅增加,使商貿成本大幅降低。2010年3月臺灣政府開放活魚運搬船直航大陸沿海地區16處港口,同年6月29日兩岸簽訂ECFA,近100種的貿易水產品項,自2011年起二至三年內關稅降至0%,其中石斑活魚、秋刀魚(凍魚)、虱目魚(凍魚片)、烏魚(鮮、冷魚)及生鮮甲魚蛋等被列為早收清單特別點名關注。ECFA簽定生效至今已近三年,本研究將分析ECFA前後,兩岸水產品重要品項的變化及臺灣水產品在中國市場的競爭優勢及消長。   一、臺灣水產品對中國市場的出口值變化 就臺灣水產品對中國市場的出口值來看,ECFA生效(2011年1月1日)以來,從2010-2011年及2011-2012年分別大幅提高8482.3萬美元及4374.7萬美元,兩年合計1億2857萬美元,約佔臺灣近兩年來水產品出口總額增額的22.76%;另外,對大陸市場的出口依存度也從2010年的2.91%大幅上升至2011年的7.34%及2012年的8.79%,分別提高了4.4%及1.5%。從這些數據來看,近兩年來ECFA對臺灣水產品的出口確實有明顯的效益。 ECFA生效的兩年來(2011及2012年加總)增額最多的品項前10名之排序(出口增額;佔比)分別為石斑活魚(9千943萬美元;77.3%)、秋刀魚凍魚(1千377萬美元;10.7%)、冷凍正鰹(317萬美元;2.5%)、虱目魚/凍(270萬美元;2.1%)、活鰻(鱸鰻)(205萬美元;1.6%)、午仔魚/生鮮或冷藏(184萬美元;1.4%)、長鰭鮪/凍(65.2萬美元;0.5%)、其他凍魚(54萬美元;0.4%)、供食用之冷凍魚翅(50.3萬美元;0.4%)、冷凍虱目魚片(42.6萬美元;0.3%)。   二、中國水產品對台灣市場的出口值變化 反之,觀察中國大陸出口至台灣的水產品出口額自2009年(該年為大三通起始年)起大幅增加,2009年出口值為2億5400萬美元為前一年(6千835萬美元)的3.72倍,增加了1億8561萬美元。2010年出口值為3億5千312萬美元為前一年的1.39倍,2011年的4億9千83萬美元亦為前一年的1.39倍,2012年的5億8千184萬美元為前一年的1.19倍,整體而言,2011年ECFA生效以來,兩年(2011年及2012年)中國合計出口至台灣的水產品金額增加2億2872萬美元。對台灣的出口依存度也從2008年的1.32%,提升至2009年的3.73%,2010年的4.01%、2011年的4.47%及2012年的5.13%。 兩年來(2011及2012年加總)增額最多的品項前9名之排序(出口增額;佔比)分別為其他凍、乾、鹽漬的墨魚、魷魚(3千985萬美元;17.4%)、凍、乾、鹽醃或鹽漬的鮑魚(2千755萬美元;12.05%)、凍小蝦仁(2千567萬美元;11.22%)、其他凍魚肉(1千977萬美元;8.65%)、其他未列名凍魚(1千900萬美元;8.31%)、凍鯧(肉)魚(1千399萬美元;6.12%)、其他凍蟹(1千389萬美元;6.07%)、鮮或冷黃魚(978萬美元;4.27%)、其他凍、乾、鹽醃或鹽漬的扇貝(361萬美元;1.58%)。   三、臺灣水產品在中國市場的競爭優勢與消長 臺灣相對於其他國家在中國市場的競爭力,具有競爭力的水產品種類很多,其中活魚、凍魚、生鮮冷藏、魚切片、魚乾、軟體類等都有品項具有極好的競爭力,如其他活魚,主要為石斑魚,觀賞用魚類/活魚等都有極強的競爭力;其他冰鮮魚類、其他鮮藏魚片及其他凍魚片也具極強的競爭力;凍魚類的正鰹/凍魚(030343)、黃鰭鮪/凍魚(30342)、大目鮪/凍魚(030344)、長鰭鮪/凍魚(030341)、其他鮪類、劍旗魚、海鱸魚、鯊魚等均具極強的競爭力;其他如適於人類食用之魚粉、細粒及團粒(30510)等,均具有極強的競爭優勢。另外,各品項臺灣出口至中國水產品競爭力有消長現象。譬如,其他凍魚類及其他冷凍切片的顯示競爭力有增強趨勢;其他冷凍、乾、鹹或浸鹹墨魚或魷魚、活、生鮮、冷藏、乾、鹹或浸鹹小蝦及對蝦等則顯示我在中國的競爭力有減弱的趨勢。   四、建議 1、出口產品的品項 (1)       高依存度/高RCA 的產品,建議持續出口中國,如其他活魚及其他冰鮮魚類等。 (2)       低依存度/高RCA的產品,建議可提高出口至這個國家的出口比例,如正鰹/凍魚、長鰭鮪/凍魚、其他冷凍切片、黃鰭鮪/凍魚、劍旗魚凍漁、大目鮪/凍魚、其他鮪/凍魚、適於人類食用之魚粉、細粒及團粒及鯊魚凍魚等。 (3)       高依存度/低RCA的產品,則建議可轉往其他較具優勢的市場發展或留在國內消費的原則,如,其他凍魚肉等。 (4)       低依存度/低RCA的產品,如鰻魚類/活魚、其他冷凍、乾、鹹或浸鹹軟體、鯖魚凍漁、活、生鮮、冷藏、乾、鹹或浸鹹小蝦及對蝦、其他乾魚、其他鹹或浸鹹帶魚、其他活、生鮮、冷藏、乾、鹹或浸鹹,包括適於人類食用之甲殼類動物粉、細粒及團粒等亦建議可轉往其他較具優勢的市場發展或留在國內消費為原則。   2、其他市場建議 (1)       對於石斑活魚走人治港,造成貿易成本不同形成劣幣逐良幣的狀況。建議可效法甲魚蛋的模式,建立兩岸產地養殖場註冊管理。 (2)       對於石斑魚生產魚種太集中或養殖上市規格太一致的狀況。建議可考慮計畫性或契作生產的可能性。 (3)       建議可考慮以除了活魚之外的不同型態行銷大陸,如冰鮮、冷凍魚片及加工水產品出口。由於低溫保存水產品的運送在中國大陸還很不成熟。建議可評估高價的冷凍魚片在大陸行銷的可行性。另外,活魚及冰鮮具距離優勢,應仍有市場。 (4)       針對大陸消費者對台灣水產品好奇但瞭解度不夠的狀況。建議行銷台灣品牌的水產品,教會大陸人如何品嘗台灣水產品。另應整合漁產品供應鏈的成員,共同集資由產業推動或行銷的力量才能持續。 (5)       水產外銷應不僅止於大陸市場,應定位在全球市場,水產加工有其必要性。 (6)       推動安全水產品的臺灣品牌的形象。如對中國或重要出口城市消費者的特殊偏好進行調查,以利市場區隔。 (7)       重點補助重要具比較利益的養殖水產品。出口競爭力差的養殖水產品留在國內消費,以替代進口的大宗水產品。 (8)       加強國際談判人才的培訓,以爭取與中國談判的機會。
英文摘要         Prior to 2001 Taiwan's implementation of management practices of mini three links(小三通), China 's trade with Taiwan are according to 1994 small-scale trade approach to Taiwan (對臺小額貿易辦法). However, the small-scale trade approach with Taiwan for Taiwan is an unofficial illegal trade practices. After 2001, the bilateral trade each dependent on <mini three links management approach "and" the small-scale trade management approach> as a basis for the imposition of tariffs and quarantine management official management. At the year of 2009, three direct links (大三通) greatly open Taiwan and Kingmn major ports to China, due to significant cost reductions trade between the Taiwan and China have significant increases. At March 2010, Taiwan government open the live fish transport vessel directly shipping to China 16 coastal ports. At the same year on June 29 the two sides signed ECFA, nearly 100 kinds of aquatic products trade items in two to three years (starting in 2011) tariff reduce to 0%, where grouper(live), Pacific saury (frozen), milkfish (frozen fish fillets), mullet (fresh, chilled fish) and fresh turtle eggs were classified as early harvest list. ECFA signed has been nearly three years, this study will analyze the items and quantities changes of fishery products of trade between Taiwan and China and also analyze the competitive advantages of Taiwan fishery products in China’s market during the post-ECFA period.   1. The changes in values of Taiwan's fishery products export to China market After ECFA (since1 January 2011) Taiwan's exports value of fishery products to China were substantial increase US$84,823,000 and US$43,747,000 dollars since 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, a total of 128.57 million, accounting for 22.76 percent of Taiwan total fishery export value increments for two years. The export dependence on China market has increased from 2.91% in 2010 sharply to 7.34% in 2011 and 8.79% in 2012, respectively, increased by 4.4% and 1.5%. From these data, for the past two years, Taiwan fishery export values have obvious benefits from signing ECFA. The first 10 products (export incremental, share) which accounts for increase export values of the two years (2011 and 2012 in total) were grouper/live ($99.43 million; 77.3%), saury/frozen ($13.77 million; 10.7%), skipjack/frozen ($3.17million; 2.5%), milkfish/frozen ($ 2.7 million; 2.1%), Eels, Anguilla/live ($ 2.05million; 1.6 %), hreadfins/ fresh or chilled ($ 1.84million; 1.4%), albacore/frozen ($ 652 thousand ; 0.5%), other fish/frozen ($ 540 thousand; 0.4%), Shark fins, edible/frozen ($ 503 thousand; 0.4%), milkfish/fillets, frozen ($ 426 thousand; 0.3%).   2. The changes in values of China's fishery products export to Taiwan market On the contrary, analyzing China's fishery products export value changes in Taiwan market, it showed from 2009 (the starting year of three direct links) the export value in 2009 were $US 254 million substantially increase of 3.72 times compare with previous year ($68.35 million), an increase of $185.61 million. The export value of 2010, $353.12 million, was 1.39 times of the previous year, and for 2011, 490.83 million, was also 1.39 times of the previous year's value. The year of 2012, 581.84 million, was 1.19 times of 2011. As a whole, since 2011 ECFA signed, for two years (2011 and 2012), the total value of fishery products for China export to Taiwan increased by $ 228.72million. The export dependence for Taiwan fishery market increased from 1.32% in 2008, to 3.73% in 2009, 4.01% in 2010, 4.47% in 2011 and 5.13% in 2012. Up to two years (2011 and 2012 in total) the first 9 products in incremental value from China export to Taiwan (export incremental; share) were Cuttle fish & squid, frozen, dried, saltd or in brine (39.85 million U.S. dollars; 17.4 %), frozen, dried, salted or in brine abalone (27.55 million ; 12.05%), frozen shelled shrimps (25.67 million; 11.22%), other frozen fish (1.977 million; 8.65 %), frozen fish, nes (19.0 million; 8.31%), Frozen butterfish (13.99 million; 6.12%), other frozen crabs (13.89 million; 6.07%) , fresh or chilled yellow croaker ($ 9.78 million; 4.27%), Scallops, frozen, dried, salt, in brine ($ 3.61 million; 1.58%).   3. The competitive advantages and growth of fishery products in China market Taiwan's fishery products, items of live fish , frozen fish, fresh chilled, fillets, dried fish , molluscs and others, have excellent competitiveness relative to other countries in China. Such as other live fish, mainly for grouper, ornamental fish have strong competitiveness; other chilled fish and other fresh fillets and other frozen fillets possession is also a highly competitive ; skipjack, frozen( HS030343 ), yellowfin, frozen(HS30342 ), bigeye, frozen( HS030344 ), albacore, frozen(HS030341 ), other tunas , swordfish , sea bass , shark etc. with extremely competitive ; others such as editable fish meal, meals and pellets (HS030510 ) for human consumption all have a strong competitive advantage. In addition, various items of Taiwan's exports to China have competitive growth. For example, other frozen fish and other frozen fillets show an increasing trend competitiveness; other frozen, dried , salted or in brine cuttlefish or squid, live, fresh, frozen, dried, salted or in brine shrimps and prawns displays the competitiveness has weakened trend.   4. Suggestions Potential export products (1)       The products with high export dependence/high RCA, we recommend continued exports to China, like other live fish, and other fresh or chilled fish. (2)       The products with low export dependence/ high RCA, it is recommended to increase the proportion of exports to China, such as skipjack/frozen, albacore/frozen, other fillets/frozen, yellowfin/frozen, swordfish/frozen, bigeye/frozen, other tuna/frozen, fish meal, and pellets suitable for human consumption, and frozen sharks. (3)       The products with high export dependence/low RCA, it is recommended that the development can be transferred to other country or remain for domestic consumption, such as other frozen fish meat. (4)       ( 4 ) The products with low dependence/low RCA, such as live eel, other frozen, dried , salted or in brine molluscs, frozen mackerel, live, fresh , frozen, dried, salted or in brine shrimps and prawns, other dried fish, salted or in brine other octopus, live, fresh , frozen, dried, salted or in brine, fit for human consumption, including crustaceans, flour, meals and pellets, are also suggested transferring to other markets or remain in domestic consumption. Other suggestion related to market (1)       As for the live grouper shipping to illegal ports of China, different trade costs result in good money chase bad money situation. It is recommended to follow the export model of fresh turtle eggs, and establish the cross-strait original registered farm management rule. (2)       As for the problem of grouper which harvest size too consistent, planning or contract producing is recommended. (3)       In addition to live grouper, different types of grouper, such as chilled, frozen fillets and processing for export are recommended. Since the condition of cryopreservation transporting for fish in China is still under mature. Suggest to evaluate the feasibility of high-priced marketing, frozen fillets, in the China. In addition, Taiwan’s live or chilled fish should still have market in China with a distance advantage. (4)       For the seafood consumers in China with curious but not understand Taiwan’s products, it is suggested to market Taiwan brand, teach them how to taste Taiwan seafood. For the market sustainable reason, another suggestion is to integrate the members in fishery products supply chain, and gathering the export promotion fund from them. (5)       The fishery products export market not only China, should be positioned in the global market. Then the processed fishery products need to develop. (6)       Promote the safety Taiwan brand image, and in order to facilitate market segmentation, survey and investigate the important preferences of China urban consumers for fishery products is suggested. (7)       Suggesting to subsidy important aquaculture products which have comparative advantage and competitiveness in exports, and products with weak competitiveness remain in domestic consumption or to replace the bulk of imports of fishery products. (8)       Enhancing people with international negotiations ability, and seek opportunities to negotiate with the export market in China.
計畫編號 102農科-5.1.4-漁-F1
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