|| Prior to 2001 Taiwan's implementation of management practices of mini three links(小三通), China 's trade with Taiwan are according to 1994 small-scale trade approach to Taiwan (對臺小額貿易辦法). However, the small-scale trade approach with Taiwan for Taiwan is an unofficial illegal trade practices. After 2001, the bilateral trade each dependent on ＜mini three links management approach "and" the small-scale trade management approach＞ as a basis for the imposition of tariffs and quarantine management official management. At the year of 2009, three direct links (大三通) greatly open Taiwan and Kingmn major ports to China, due to significant cost reductions trade between the Taiwan and China have significant increases.
At March 2010, Taiwan government open the live fish transport vessel directly shipping to China 16 coastal ports. At the same year on June 29 the two sides signed ECFA, nearly 100 kinds of aquatic products trade items in two to three years (starting in 2011) tariff reduce to 0%, where grouper(live), Pacific saury (frozen), milkfish (frozen fish fillets), mullet (fresh, chilled fish) and fresh turtle eggs were classified as early harvest list. ECFA signed has been nearly three years, this study will analyze the items and quantities changes of fishery products of trade between Taiwan and China and also analyze the competitive advantages of Taiwan fishery products in China’s market during the post-ECFA period.
1. The changes in values of Taiwan's fishery products export to China market
After ECFA (since1 January 2011) Taiwan's exports value of fishery products to China were substantial increase US$84,823,000 and US$43,747,000 dollars since 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, a total of 128.57 million, accounting for 22.76 percent of Taiwan total fishery export value increments for two years. The export dependence on China market has increased from 2.91% in 2010 sharply to 7.34% in 2011 and 8.79% in 2012, respectively, increased by 4.4% and 1.5%. From these data, for the past two years, Taiwan fishery export values have obvious benefits from signing ECFA.
The first 10 products (export incremental, share) which accounts for increase export values of the two years (2011 and 2012 in total) were grouper/live ($99.43 million; 77.3%), saury/frozen ($13.77 million; 10.7%), skipjack/frozen ($3.17million; 2.5%), milkfish/frozen ($ 2.7 million; 2.1%), Eels, Anguilla/live ($ 2.05million; 1.6 %), hreadfins/ fresh or chilled ($ 1.84million; 1.4%), albacore/frozen ($ 652 thousand ; 0.5%), other fish/frozen ($ 540 thousand; 0.4%), Shark fins, edible/frozen ($ 503 thousand; 0.4%), milkfish/fillets, frozen ($ 426 thousand; 0.3%).
2. The changes in values of China's fishery products export to Taiwan market
On the contrary, analyzing China's fishery products export value changes in Taiwan market, it showed from 2009 (the starting year of three direct links) the export value in 2009 were $US 254 million substantially increase of 3.72 times compare with previous year ($68.35 million), an increase of $185.61 million. The export value of 2010, $353.12 million, was 1.39 times of the previous year, and for 2011, 490.83 million, was also 1.39 times of the previous year's value. The year of 2012, 581.84 million, was 1.19 times of 2011. As a whole, since 2011 ECFA signed, for two years (2011 and 2012), the total value of fishery products for China export to Taiwan increased by $ 228.72million. The export dependence for Taiwan fishery market increased from 1.32% in 2008, to 3.73% in 2009, 4.01% in 2010, 4.47% in 2011 and 5.13% in 2012.
Up to two years (2011 and 2012 in total) the first 9 products in incremental value from China export to Taiwan (export incremental; share) were Cuttle fish ＆ squid, frozen, dried, saltd or in brine (39.85 million U.S. dollars; 17.4 %), frozen, dried, salted or in brine abalone (27.55 million ; 12.05%), frozen shelled shrimps (25.67 million; 11.22%), other frozen fish (1.977 million; 8.65 %), frozen fish, nes (19.0 million; 8.31%), Frozen butterfish (13.99 million; 6.12%), other frozen crabs (13.89 million; 6.07%) , fresh or chilled yellow croaker ($ 9.78 million; 4.27%), Scallops, frozen, dried, salt, in brine ($ 3.61 million; 1.58%).
3. The competitive advantages and growth of fishery products in China market
Taiwan's fishery products, items of live fish , frozen fish, fresh chilled, fillets, dried fish , molluscs and others, have excellent competitiveness relative to other countries in China. Such as other live fish, mainly for grouper, ornamental fish have strong competitiveness; other chilled fish and other fresh fillets and other frozen fillets possession is also a highly competitive ; skipjack, frozen( HS030343 ), yellowfin, frozen(HS30342 ), bigeye, frozen( HS030344 ), albacore, frozen(HS030341 ), other tunas , swordfish , sea bass , shark etc. with extremely competitive ; others such as editable fish meal, meals and pellets (HS030510 ) for human consumption all have a strong competitive advantage. In addition, various items of Taiwan's exports to China have competitive growth. For example, other frozen fish and other frozen fillets show an increasing trend competitiveness; other frozen, dried , salted or in brine cuttlefish or squid, live, fresh, frozen, dried, salted or in brine shrimps and prawns displays the competitiveness has weakened trend.
Potential export products
(1) The products with high export dependence/high RCA, we recommend continued exports to China, like other live fish, and other fresh or chilled fish.
(2) The products with low export dependence/ high RCA, it is recommended to increase the proportion of exports to China, such as skipjack/frozen, albacore/frozen, other fillets/frozen, yellowfin/frozen, swordfish/frozen, bigeye/frozen, other tuna/frozen, fish meal, and pellets suitable for human consumption, and frozen sharks.
(3) The products with high export dependence/low RCA, it is recommended that the development can be transferred to other country or remain for domestic consumption, such as other frozen fish meat.
(4) ( 4 ) The products with low dependence/low RCA, such as live eel, other frozen, dried , salted or in brine molluscs, frozen mackerel, live, fresh , frozen, dried, salted or in brine shrimps and prawns, other dried fish, salted or in brine other octopus, live, fresh , frozen, dried, salted or in brine, fit for human consumption, including crustaceans, flour, meals and pellets, are also suggested transferring to other markets or remain in domestic consumption.
Other suggestion related to market
(1) As for the live grouper shipping to illegal ports of China, different trade costs result in good money chase bad money situation. It is recommended to follow the export model of fresh turtle eggs, and establish the cross-strait original registered farm management rule.
(2) As for the problem of grouper which harvest size too consistent, planning or contract producing is recommended.
(3) In addition to live grouper, different types of grouper, such as chilled, frozen fillets and processing for export are recommended. Since the condition of cryopreservation transporting for fish in China is still under mature. Suggest to evaluate the feasibility of high-priced marketing, frozen fillets, in the China. In addition, Taiwan’s live or chilled fish should still have market in China with a distance advantage.
(4) For the seafood consumers in China with curious but not understand Taiwan’s products, it is suggested to market Taiwan brand, teach them how to taste Taiwan seafood. For the market sustainable reason, another suggestion is to integrate the members in fishery products supply chain, and gathering the export promotion fund from them.
(5) The fishery products export market not only China, should be positioned in the global market. Then the processed fishery products need to develop.
(6) Promote the safety Taiwan brand image, and in order to facilitate market segmentation, survey and investigate the important preferences of China urban consumers for fishery products is suggested.
(7) Suggesting to subsidy important aquaculture products which have comparative advantage and competitiveness in exports, and products with weak competitiveness remain in domestic consumption or to replace the bulk of imports of fishery products.
(8) Enhancing people with international negotiations ability, and seek opportunities to negotiate with the export market in China.