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研究報告

更新日期: 2015-02-09
點閱數: 1,332

臺灣周邊海域鯖鰺漁業資源動態解析(以東北部海域為主)

年度 2013
計劃名稱 臺灣周邊海域鯖鰺漁業資源動態解析(以東北部海域為主)
中文摘要 花腹鯖是跨域魚種,也是台灣東北部之重要經濟性魚種;在其生活史當中,體長17cm以下可被漁獲作為養殖魚之生餌,17~22cm作為鮪延繩釣之釣餌,而23cm以上可出口作為開發中國家之糧食,以及食品加工之用,30cm以上則可加工處理成一夜乾,及供應國內生鮮市場等多元需求,不再是廉價魚種。因此台灣鯖鰺漁業快速發展,花腹鯖資源之持續性生產成為矚目的焦點。本研究藉由11年來大型鯖鰺圍網(日式)及扒網(台式)之漁獲資訊,將努力量標準化後,考察其CPUE之變化。並採集其漁獲標本,除進行生殖生物學研究,並以von Bertalanffly growth equation(VBGE)推定花腹鯖成長狀態。結果顯示近年來花腹鯖出現極限體長與變小、成長率變大、CPUE降低等過漁徵兆。另外本研究亦考察因氣候因素而休漁一個月以上,以及台灣漁政單位於2013年6月試辦休漁,對調整花腹鯖生產的管理效益,顯示台灣單方面實施休漁後,魚體有自然成長而變大,且相較於休魚之同月份體長有明顯增加,另外,產卵期發生了休漁,可保護部分親魚,所產出的0歲魚,於成長後加入漁場的漁獲量亦有增加,顯示休漁發揮了肯定的效果;但努力量仍然太高,且缺乏跨國之管理機制,無助於花腹鯖的資源之恢復。
英文摘要 Blue mackerel belongs to straddling fish stock and is an important commercial fish in the seas northeast of   During its life history, blue mackerel has been exploited for several purposes: fish of body length under 17 cm for fresh bait in aquaculture, between 17 and 22 cm as bait for tuna longline fishing, and over 23 cm exported to developing countries as food or other processed products.  Mackerel of body length over 30 cm as food for domestic fresh fish market and can be processed as one night salt-dried mackerel.  Mackerel fisheries is therefore developing quickly, and the sustainability of its natural resource has been a focal issue for the industry.  The present study, based on 11-year data of fishing information of large purse seine (Japanese type) and small purse seine (Taiwanese type), standardized the catch effort, then examined the variation of CPUE.  In the meantime we collected fish specimens to study reproductive biology and assess the growth status with von Bertlanffly growth equation (VBGE).  Our results showed that in recent years for the blue mackerel the theoretical maximum length and L50 have decreased, growth coefficient has increased, and CPUE has decreased.  These changes clearly indicate overfishing of blue mackerel.  We also found out that the mandatory fishing moratorium based on the weather and Taiwan tested the fishing moratorium in June 2013 has effectively regulated and improved the production of mackerel fisheries.  After the closing of unilateral mandatory fishing moratorium enforced by Taiwan, a short term increase in fishing yield of the Taiwanese fishing vessels was evident.  In the meantime fish body length was also increased.  The moratorium, which was taken place in spawning season, partly protected spawners of mackerel as well as their newly hatched larvae, and resulted in later increase in recruitment of the population, consequently the increase in fishing yield.  These results illustrate the positive effectiveness of mandatory fishing moratorium.  However, the catch effort is still too high and there is no international management mechanism to enforce the moratorium, therefore, no practical assistance to the recovery of the mackerel resources.
計畫編號 102農科-11.2.1-漁-F2(2)
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