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沿近海重要漁業資源管理與利用之調查研究-寶石珊瑚、飛魚(卵)、鯖鰺、烏魚及鎖管

年度 2013
計劃名稱 沿近海重要漁業資源管理與利用之調查研究-寶石珊瑚、飛魚(卵)、鯖鰺、烏魚及鎖管
中文摘要 「沿近海重要漁業資源管理與利用之調查研究-寶石珊瑚、飛魚(卵)、鯖鰺、烏魚及鎖管」之中文摘要: 一、「臺灣周邊水域飛魚/飛魚卵漁業利用與管理之研究」       本計畫為科技保密計畫,故不引入相關資訊,請另參照細部計畫期末報告紙本。 二、「臺灣周邊海域鯖鰺漁業資源動態解析(以東北部海域為主)」       花腹鯖是跨域魚種,也是台灣東北部之重要經濟性魚種;在其生活史當中,體長17cm以下可被漁獲作為養殖魚之生餌,17~22cm作為鮪延繩釣之釣餌,而23cm以上可出口作為開發中國家之糧食,以及食品加工之用,30cm以上則可加工處理成一夜乾,及供應國內生鮮市場等多元需求,不再是廉價魚種。因此台灣鯖鰺漁業快速發展,花腹鯖資源之持續性生產成為矚目的焦點。本研究藉由11年來大型鯖鰺圍網(日式)及扒網(台式)之漁獲資訊,將努力量標準化後,考察其CPUE之變化。並採集其漁獲標本,除進行生殖生物學研究,並以von Bertalanffly growth equation(VBGE)推定花腹鯖成長狀態。結果顯示近年來花腹鯖出現極限體長與變小、成長率變大、CPUE降低等過漁徵兆。另外本研究亦考察因氣候因素而休漁一個月以上,以及台灣漁政單位於2013年6月試辦休漁,對調整花腹鯖生產的管理效益,顯示台灣單方面實施休漁後,魚體有自然成長而變大,且相較於休魚之同月份體長有明顯增加,另外,產卵期發生了休漁,可保護部分親魚,所產出的0歲魚,於成長後加入漁場的漁獲量亦有增加,顯示休漁發揮了肯定的效果;但努力量仍然太高,且缺乏跨國之管理機制,無助於花腹鯖的資源之恢復。 三、「寶石珊瑚漁業漁獲資料分析及漁場調查研究」        寶石珊瑚具相當經濟價值,並具宗教文化意義,其商業開發已數世紀。臺灣寶石珊瑚漁業始於1920年代,但相關之族群生物生態學資訊仍相當不足。究明寶石珊瑚之族群構與生態系功能,為有效漁業管理之重要基礎,並可提供寶石珊瑚資源保育之參考。臺灣寶石珊瑚漁業自2009年起積極管理,並蒐集及建立漁獲及生物資料,以瞭解臺灣周邊寶石珊瑚之資源狀態。本研究依此管理措施,擬解決問題有:(1)分析寶石珊瑚漁業之漁獲努力量、漁獲量及資源豐度之時空分布,並比較年間趨勢及差異;(2)分析目標物種之族群參數,混獲物種組成,及對環境之影響;(3)維護並更新漁獲統計資料庫。   A.漁業資料分析 2013年(至9月止)為2335.1公斤。於2009至2013年(9月),漁獲量之商業規格(categories)組成,以蟲枝(fossilized)最多(>57%),活枝最少(<5%),2013年為2.1%。物種組成以Momo珊瑚最多(>63%),其次為Miss珊瑚。活枝產量亦以Momo珊瑚所佔比例最高(>60%)。漁獲努力量(船-日)及漁獲量皆以A漁場最高,E漁場所佔比例逐漸上升,但2013年稍降。月別漁獲努力量則受天氣影響。活枝珊瑚產量則以E區所佔比例最高(>48%)。漁區別努力量分布(船-日)有明顯季節性差異。活枝珊瑚產量在不同物種及不同漁區各有增減。月別活枝珊瑚的出現率於2009~2010年下降,但2012~2013年持平。漁獲量組成以蟲枝居多,反映非選擇性漁具的低效益特性,亦反映現有漁場活枝珊瑚之低比例。固著性生物之漁業管理目標,除考慮其資源結構完整外,亦應考慮其生態系功能之維持,以兼顧漁業永續及生態保育之目的。   B.生物資料分析2013年的寶石珊瑚漁業捕撈物種調查,所採獲的寶石珊瑚物種有:桃紅珊瑚(Corallium elatius)、白珊瑚(C. konojoi)及赤紅珊瑚(Paracorallium japonicum)共3物種。物種與過去調查結果相同,另在非寶石珊瑚漁業作業區的蘭嶼南方記錄到粉紅珊瑚(C. sulcatum),並未發現新物種。觀察員航次包括A區17次、B區8次、D區3次、E區3次,共31航次。上述4漁區內的捕獲對象皆以桃紅珊瑚為主,多數為死枝,僅在A區採獲一株赤紅珊瑚活枝。A區在292次的捕獲紀錄中僅20次為活枝、B區在56次的捕獲紀錄中僅採獲1活枝、D區在17次的捕獲紀錄中有採獲2活枝、E區在88次的捕獲紀錄中僅10次為活枝,在A區的活枝比例較去年略微升高,應持續監測資源變動情形。本年度的調查中各區起網時仍以空網比例最高,其次則為底質礁石或漁業廢棄物等,與過去幾年的調查相同。本年度在寶石珊瑚漁業漁場記錄到的物種,包含軟體動物4科4種、甲殼動物5科8種、中光層珊瑚7科15種、魚類2科2種,包含海膽、海星以及海百合等11種棘皮動物,以及多種海綿。各區內的混獲物種以中光層珊瑚為多數。本年度首次得到D區的調查資料,在目前劃定的5作業漁區內,目前仍缺乏C區的相關資料,期待未來觀察員航次可以增加C區的調查資料,以獲得更為完整的成果。 四、「烏魚動態解析及管理措施之研究」       本計畫為科技保密計畫,故不引入相關資訊,請另參照細部計畫期末報告紙本。 五、「海峽北部鎖管漁業資源之調查評估」        摘要 近年來鎖管產量有逐漸下降的趨勢,可見鎖管資源量有越來越少的情形。目前大部分的研究著重在火誘網漁獲量與環境之相互關係,以及針對火誘網所捕獲之劍尖槍鎖管生物學部分,而拖網也是捕獲鎖管之漁法之一。鎖管外套膜長(ML)量測的結果顯示,拖網所捕獲之鎖管,其外套膜長之分布範圍(1.8-40.82cm),比火誘網所捕獲之鎖管(2.1-32.9cm)來得廣。在性比部分,火誘網所捕獲到之雄性鎖管較多。鎖管生殖腺指數(GSI)之月別變動顯示,兩種漁法所捕獲之鎖管,其GSI皆在春秋兩季時出現高峰值。此外,由50%性成熟體長顯示,拖網所捕獲之雌雄鎖管(除春季外)均比火誘網大。由外套長與日齡之成長關係式顯示,劍尖槍鎖管以指數型(Exponential model)方程式作為最佳成長方程式 另外在東北部海域鎖管漁業長期變動特性上,由採樣之尖尾鎖管標本觀察,年平均體長在2001年至2012年間變動不大,約為90 mmML。 年平均體重則在2001年至2007年間明顯下降,2008年升高,2009年至2011年則下降 。在資源量指標方面,多數年度僅由期初季節群添加支應全年漁期(2002-2006年)。 但部分年度則於漁期中有明顯之添加群(如2007、2011年)。 2012前半年鎖管漁業活動概況方面,捕獲鎖管之漁業包含拖網、刺網、火誘網、扒網、雜魚延繩釣、一支釣、曳繩釣等漁業共有236艘樣本船。其中鎖管漁獲量以拖網及火誘網為主分別捕獲251 ton 及244 ton,作業漁船的努力量主要集中於東北部海域、西部海域、澎湖海域,其中以東北部海域的分佈最廣,火誘網船主要於25°N以北的東北陸棚再等深線100-200m間作業;拖網漁業方面作業分部海域廣闊自26°N以南延伸西南海域,整個西部海域皆有拖網漁船的作業活動;而澎湖周邊海域以一支釣漁船作業為主。其漁獲量與努力量分布相似,而高CPUE作業海域由25°N往南至雲彰隆起之間以拖網漁獲效率最高。 臺灣沿近海漁業之集魚燈使用概況,以臺灣東北部最為興盛,平均懸掛燈數44盞;各噸級集魚燈使用上,呈現指數型的增加,CT0 至CT6總平均燈數10.4 - 98.1盞。   關鍵詞:鎖管,臺灣東北部海域,拖網漁業,火誘網漁業,集魚燈
英文摘要 Abstract of "Investigation on Major fishery Resources and studies on Reasonable Regulatiory Devices in the coastal water of Taiwan: with emphasis on Precious Coral, Flyingfish and Flyingfish Roe , Mackerel and Scad, Mullet, and Loliginid squid.": 1. "Studies on the utilization and management of flyingfish and flyingfish roe fisheries in coastal waters of Taiwan" :      本計畫為科技保密計畫,故不引入相關資訊,請另參照細部計畫期末報告紙本。 2. "Assessment of mackerel and scad fishery resources in the waters of Taiwan (Primary in the north east area)" :       Blue mackerel belongs to straddling fish stock and is an important commercial fish in the seas northeast of   During its life history, blue mackerel has been exploited for several purposes: fish of body length under 17 cm for fresh bait in aquaculture, between 17 and 22 cm as bait for tuna longline fishing, and over 23 cm exported to developing countries as food or other processed products.  Mackerel of body length over 30 cm as food for domestic fresh fish market and can be processed as one night salt-dried mackerel.  Mackerel fisheries is therefore developing quickly, and the sustainability of its natural resource has been a focal issue for the industry.  The present study, based on 11-year data of fishing information of large purse seine (Japanese type) and small purse seine (Taiwanese type), standardized the catch effort, then examined the variation of CPUE.  In the meantime we collected fish specimens to study reproductive biology and assess the growth status with von Bertlanffly growth equation (VBGE).  Our results showed that in recent years for the blue mackerel the theoretical maximum length and L50 have decreased, growth coefficient has increased, and CPUE has decreased.  These changes clearly indicate overfishing of blue mackerel.  We also found out that the mandatory fishing moratorium based on the weather and Taiwan tested the fishing moratorium in June 2013 has effectively regulated and improved the production of mackerel fisheries.  After the closing of unilateral mandatory fishing moratorium enforced by Taiwan, a short term increase in fishing yield of the Taiwanese fishing vessels was evident.  In the meantime fish body length was also increased.  The moratorium, which was taken place in spawning season, partly protected spawners of mackerel as well as their newly hatched larvae, and resulted in later increase in recruitment of the population, consequently the increase in fishing yield.  These results illustrate the positive effectiveness of mandatory fishing moratorium.  However, the catch effort is still too high and there is no international management mechanism to enforce the moratorium, therefore, no practical assistance to the recovery of the mackerel resources. 3. "Analysis of catch data and fisheries oceanography for precious coral fishery in Taiwan" :       Precious corals are of highly economic values and of significance in religion and culture. They have been commercially exploited for many centuries in the Mediterranean and for almost one century in the Northwest Pacific. Although the precious coral fishery in Taiwan dates back to the 1920s, relevant studies on biology and ecology of resources are relatively scarce. The management of the precious coral fishery in Taiwan was officially instituted in January 2009, when data on the catch and effort of the fishery were recorded. In this study, the catch-effort data of the fishery between 2009 and 2013 were examined to explore the temporal and spatial patterns in composition and abundance of Corallium and Paracorallium spp. around Taiwan. According to the regulation, the objectives of this study are (1) to collect and maintain the catch and effort data of precious coral fishery of Taiwan, and preliminarily analyse the distribution patterns spatiotemporally; (2) to identify the target species and bycatch species, analyse catch composition and morphormetric measurements; (3) update and maintain catch and effort database.   A. Fisheries data analysis The annual number of issued licensees was around 60 and landing ranged 2.9 to 3.5 tons between 2009 and 2012. The number of vessel was 60 with a landing of 2.3 tons in 2013 (September). The fossilized colony was predominant (57~78%) in the production, while live colony was lesser than 5%. The proportion of live colony was 2.1% in 2013 (September). Momo coral was predominant in the total production (>63%) and in production of live colony (>60%). The fishing effort (vessel-day) mainly located at designated fishing ground (DFG) A (53~64%), followed by DFG-B (10~22%). The spatial distribution pattern of total production was similar to those of the fishing effort. Production of live colony was major from DFG-E (48~82%), followed by DFG-A (15~45%). A significant seasonal movement was found for spatial distribution pattern in fishing effort. Monthly catch rate of total production showed seasonal pattern. Temporal variation of production of live colony was different for different species in each DFG. The occurrence rate of live colony was increase (from 21% to 34%) in 2010~2012, but also did the standard deviation. The high proportion of fossilized colony in the production showed not only low efficiency of the non-selective gears in the fishery, but also the possibility of low abundance for live colony in the DFGs. The management of sessile animals, such as corals, should consider not only sustainability of the population in structure, but also in functions in the ecosystem which will achieve the targets in fisheries management and conservation.   B. Biological data analysis In 2013, the result of present survey indicated that three Coralliidae species including Corallium elatius, C. konojoi and Paracorallium japonicum were collected by precious coral fishery resembling the result in the past year. In the non-fishery region, C. sulcatum was recorded near the southern region of Orchid Island. In this year, we do not find any new Coralliidae species. Observers went to zone A for 17 times, zone B for 8 times, zone D for 3 times and zone E for 3 times. The major harvested species in the above four zones is C. elatius and live colonies were occasionally caught. The only live colony of P. japonicum was collected from zone A. In zone A, the collection records were composed of 292 corals, and only 20 of them were live colonies. In zone B, 56 corals were collected, and only 1 was live colony. In zone D, there were 2 live colonies recorded among the 17 caught corals. In zone E, the collection data of 88 corals were recorded and 10 of them were live colonies. Comparing with the data in last year, the ratio of live colonies was slight increase in zone A. We still have to continue monitoring the variation of precious coral resource. For by-catch species, 4 families and 4 species in Mollusca, 5 families and 8 species in Crustacea, 7 families and 15 species in mesophotic corals, 2 families and 2 species in fishes in addition with other echinoderms and sea stars were identified from by-catch. It is the first time that we got data from zone D and we still do not have data from zone C. We have to strive for getting fishery data from zone C to get a more complete view of precious coral fishery. 4. "Research on Mullet population dynamic and management measure" :      本計畫為科技保密計畫,故不引入相關資訊,請另參照細部計畫期末報告紙本。 5. "Stock status of loliginid squids in the northern Taiwan Strait" :       Abstract Resources of squids became less and less, thus lead to the decrease of squid production. Currently, the most researches of squids focused on the relationship between catches of torch-light fishery and fishing environments, as well as biological study of squids which caught by torch-light fishery. Trawl fishery is also one of the main fisheries that caughtes squids. The results showed the distribution range of mantle length in trawl fishery (1.8~40.82cm) was wider than the range of torch-light fishery (2.1~32.9cm). The sex ratio showed the squids caught by torch-light fishery had more males with significant sex difference. The monthly variation of GSI showed that both area of the male squids had a peak value in spring and autumn. In addition, the results of mantle length at 50% sexual maturity excluding spring showed the squids caught in trawl fishery were bigger than torch-light fishery. Exponential and power growth models explained the fit to the size-at-age data to a similar extent. Alternatively, to observe the he sword tip squid sample in the northeastern water of long-term changes. And the year of average mantle length almost 90mm are not change more in 2001 to 2012. The average of weight is clearly go down in 2001 to 2007. But, In 2008 get high and in 2009 to 2011 also decline. In terms of the abundance index ,it begin period joined by 2002 to 2006 and part of year in which it is added. The activity of squid half of 2012. To catch the fisheries of squid include trawl fishery, gillnet fishery, torched-light net fisheries, danish seine net fishery, porgy and miscellanous fish long line, pole and lines boote, and troll line fisheries.It has 236 sample vessels totally. Among the catch of squid, the trawl fishery catch 251ton and torched-light net fisheries catch 224ton. The CPUE of vessels concentrate in northeastern, west and Penghu waters.Then the distribution of northeastern water is the most widely. The distribute of torched-light net fisheries’s operation is extending from south of 26°N to west waters ,and distributed all the western waters. And the operate of pole and lines boote is mainly in the waters off Penghu. The catches and effort’s distribute is similar in offshore and coastal fisheries. However the CPUE’s waters of trawl efficiency is highest from part of south 25°N to Yun-Chang Rise. The fishing lamps of offshore and coastal fisheries is used overview then the useful part is in northeastern of Taiwan ( mean lamp 44). And the used of ton class emerges of exponential increase, CT0 to CT6’s average lamp are total in 10.4 - 98.1   Keywords: squids, waters off northeastern Taiwan, trawl fishery, t orched-light net fisheries, fishing lamps.
計畫編號 102農科-11.2.1-漁-F2(Z)
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