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研究報告

更新日期: 2015-02-09
點閱數: 1,431

臺灣周邊海域魩鱙資源變動及管理機制調整研究

年度 2013
計劃名稱 臺灣周邊海域魩鱙資源變動及管理機制調整研究
中文摘要     魩鱙漁業為臺灣本島沿岸水域常見的小型漁業。 此漁業之漁民於每年之春(3 ~ 5月)及秋(9 ~ 11月)兩季,在沿岸水域,撈捕鯷科及鯡科仔稚魚為標的。 1990年前後,年漁獲量約在1000 t 左右,近年則只在500 ~ 700 t 左右盤旋。 本年計畫持續收集魩鱙漁業之更新資料,俾觀察每年之變動情形,同時亦統合整理歷史資料,檢討及建議管理方向。     漁業署於2009年將魩鱙漁業之漁撈日誌收集系統建置完畢。 本(2012)年為第4年之資料收集。 2012年共獲得9,241筆資料,較2011年之7,662筆資料,增加1,639筆資料錄,此資料組反應6,770個作業日及13,873個作業網次(包括大目袖綱、流袋網及其他網具)。 全年之漁獲量為935.6 t,平均每一趟出海得138 kg。 本漁業總年產值為168.9百萬元,平均單價為180.5 元/公斤。 本(2013)年春季漁獲概況顯示:東北水域之作業首日為4月8日(98 Julian days, Jd),但漁獲之狀況不佳, 4月20日(110 Jd)才達到漁獲量的峰值,3.6 t的單日到岸量,呈現漁期較晚,且魚群密度不高。 西南水域之正式漁期由2月5日開始,但沒有強的添加群,只是形成漁期的暖身而已;直到3月4 & 5日,每日達3 t的到岸漁獲,高峰而後,走向下斜陡坡,直到漁期結束。 2013年春季資料收集及初步分析完成,惟猶待秋季資料之匯入,並總結之。     漁獲之物種組成方面,東北水域之魚種組成,主要有四個魚種,分別是日本鯷(Engrailis japonicus, 47.2 %),刺公鯷(Encrasicholina punctifer, 24.6 %),異葉公鯷(Encrasicholina heteroloba, 9.7 %),及黃小砂丁(Sardinella lemuru, 8.5 %)。 西北水域主要魚種為刺公鯷(28.5 %),次為日本鯷(16.2 %)及異葉公鯷(20.9 %)。 西南水域之魚種組成維持穩定,主要魚種為異葉公鯷(61.8 %),而刺公鯷所佔亦高,達到35.4 %。 兩者已合占約九成五以上的漁獲物。 混獲之魚種組成顯示:東北水域春季的混獲情形較往年為低,僅達6.56 %,西北水域混獲只佔7.78 %,西南水域的混獲率估為1.41 %,與去(2012)年相較,去年之混獲率相對低,今年則更低,回復到往年約5%之水平。 全島之混獲最主要的五個物種是蛇鯔 (0.90 %), 粗紋鰏(0.81 %), 花斑蛇鯔(0.62 %), 三鰭鳚(0.48 %), 及小牙鰏(0.33 %)。     東北水域之歷年資料發現今(2013)年的資源強度在本春季屬於相對低迷的漁業景況,秋季漁期稍微彌補回來;西南水域目前之作業規模屬於適正水平。
英文摘要      Larval fisheries, being called “Bua” fisheries in Taiwan are commonly found in the coastal areas.  The local fishermen seek after engraulid (anchovies) and clupeid (herrings) larvae in spring (Mar ~ May) and fall (Sep ~ Nov).  During 1990’s the annual landing was accounted to 1,000 t, while in the last ten years barely 500 ~ 700 t were landed.  This annual project keeps on collecting data from Bua practices in order to monitoring the fishery resources and updating annual management plan.      A comprehensive logbook collection system has been constructed by Fisheries Agency in 2009, and thus the 2012’s data were the fourth complete annual data complemented into the system.  In 2012, we found 9,241data records, which are 1,639 records surplus to that of 2011 (7,662 records).  The dataset included 6,770 boat-trips, and 13,873 net throws; including large-wing, fyke and fork –hand nets.  The harvest was summed to 935.6 t and averaged 138 kg boat-trip-1, and the amount valued 168.9 million NTD, with an averaged unit price of 180.5 NTD kg-1.  The data collected in spring 2013 is compiled, and will be concluded next project term.     In the 2013’s spring, it exhibited that the starting date of practice was on April 8 in NE waters, but the fishing condition was far from good.  The condition improved on April 20, when 3.6 t was landed in a single day, indicating a late starting season and sparse harvest.  In SW water, the fishing season started on February 5, when catch was not strong but reflected a status of seasonal formation process.  In March 4 & 5, daily landings improved to 3 t.  From this peak onward, the fishing condition went down quickly, and that declared a dying stage of the spring fishing season.      The Bua catches was composed of 4 major species; i.e., Japanese anchovy (Engrailis japonicus, 47.2 %), Buccaneer anchovy (Encrasicholina punctifer, 24.6 %), shorthead anchovy (E. heteroloba, 9.7 %), and yellow sardine (Sardinella lemuru, 8.5 %) in NE waters; Buccaneer anchovy (28.5 %), Japanese anchovy (16.2 %) & shorthead anchovy (20.9 %) in NW waters; and shorthead anchovy (61.8 %) and Buccaneeer anchovy (35.4 %) in SW waters.  The by-catch percentages were estimated 6.56 % in NE, 7.78 % in NW and 1.41 % in SW; reflecting a low by-catch rate in 2013’s spring.  Taken as a whole, the top 5 species being by-caught were Saurida wanieso (0.90 %), Leiognathus lineolatus (0.81 %), Saurida undosquamis (0.62 %), Tripterygion inclinatus (0.48%), and Gazza minuta (0.33%).     Finally, we saw recruitment in NE was low in spring but recovered in autumn during 2013, and that in SW was pretty fair in both season. 
計畫編號 102農科-11.2.1-漁-F4(1)
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