||Abstract of "To establish the key technology for grouper and ornamental fish culture":
1. "Utilization of molecular technology to screen high quality grouper for breeding" :
2. "Development of molecular breeding on ornamental fish" :
3. "Selection breeding program of environmental adaptation in penaeid shrimp and freshwater shrimp" :
White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the important aquaculture species in the world. Using the molecular markers in genetic selection and process can improve the efficiency and accuracy of breeding. Acetylcholinesterase (EC 220.127.116.11; AChE), a key enzyme in the nervous system, regulates nerve impulse transmission by catalyzing hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, It has been shown that low temperature stress caused decrease in the level of AchE in warm water fish and shrimp. In present study, suing AChE gene activity in shrimp as a potential biomarker against cold stress is under investigation. In present study, five microsatellite DNA markers (TUMXLv6.63, TUMXLv6.124, TUMXLv7.121, TUMXLv9.145, TUMXLv10.411) were selected to analyze two different white shrimp groups (G–1 and G–2) and compared the correlation between markers and body weight. The mean number of alleles, mean Ho, mean He, and mean PIC were 3.8, 0.457 and 0.382, 0.507 and 0.478, 0.488 and 0.462, in G–1 and G–2, respectively, which indicated this groups was medium genetic diversity. The mean body weight of G–1 with the genotype AC at locus TUMXLv6.63 was significantly higher than other two genotypes, and G–2 with the genotype AB at locus TUMXLv7.121 was significantly higher than other five genotypes. These data indicated that these two markers and growth traits may have some relationship. A cDNA microarray encompassing 6000 putative unigenes expressed in gills, circulating haemocytess, and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was applied in nutrigenomic study and the result revealed that the expression of innate immune genes ( such as, crustin, lysozyme, mo-penaeidin, transglutaminase and kazal-type proteinase inhibitor ) were increased after WSSV infection. In present study, we have demonstrated that shrimp immune DNA microarray might provide a useful tool to identify disease resistant gene markers for marker-assisted selection program for paneid shrimps.
4. "Establishment of the hatching and propagation techniques of Syngnathidae" :
Almost sea dragon and/or pipe fish (Syngnathidae)(including freshwater, brackish water and marine species) are imminent danger species for many issues in wild animal resource conservation including overexploitation, aquatic environment polluted and habitat loss. Artificial propagation has been proposed as one solution to address unsustainable trade for traditional medicine, ornamental fishes and curios. Almost species have not only specific morphological model but also special physiological behavior. And all species have higher price and additive value in ornamental fish market.
This investigation examined the effects of species, habitat, water quality and parameters, sex ratio, various feed organisms culture, maintain and feeding, and propagation, survival ration (PHD 90) and growth of different species sea dragon (including genus Microphis, Hippichthys, Doryrhamphus and Doryichthys). During the 6-month study, almost species of sea dragon cultured at a photoperiod L:D=16:8 had higher survival ratio, mating frequencies and breed. Juvenile growth rate increased with mixture and enhance feed organisms, including microalgae, rotifer, Artemia and nauplii, tubifex, microworm, Caridina spp. and livebearer fish (platy, molly and guppy). Survival ratio of freshwater(genusMicrophis), brackish (genusHippichthys and Doryichthys)and marine(genus Doryrhamphuss) species were 60-85%, 25-85% and 25-40% when juvenile after PHD 90, respectively. Results demonstrated that appropriate photoperiods, sex ratio, various feed organisms and feeding frequency can improve the survival, growth, feeding and mating of the juvenile, sub-adult and adult sea dragon.
5. "Clownfish breeding and developing molecular marker technique" :
The clownfish is one of the most important marine ornamental fish and is becoming increasingly popular in the aquarium fish. The main source of the clownfish is capture from the natural sources. Therefore the resource of clownfish is gradually decreased. In order to reduce the exhaustion of the natural sources, reducing capture and developing the technologies for the farming of clownfish have already become a most important subject. Currently, the development of an ornamental aquaculture protocol faces several critical bottlenecks related to production processes (i.e. spawning induction, embryo development, hatching and transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding). In order to distinguish the clownfish species, we will analyze mitochondrial DNA and construct a DNA barcode database to provide a new species identification tool for the clownfish. We have finished collect five kinds of Taiwan clownfish. We also established the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) microsatellite DNA library.
6. "Develop the key techniques of ornamental fish and shrimp" :
7. "commercial funtional ornamental fish feed analysis" :
There are two parts in this project. The first part focused on the competition of worldwide ornamental fish feed among Mainland China and southeast Asia countries and analysis of the dominance and future strategies of Taiwan ornamental fish feed. The second part focused on the estimation of the efficiency and the enhanced pigments of eleven ornamental fish feeds and the certification standards for enhanced pigment of ornamental fish feed and formula standards for special functional fish feed. Taiwan has advantages in ornamental fish culturing environment, advanced culturing system, breeding technology and biotechnology. Ornamental fish markets have been shown increasing demand, and following up the demand of ornamental fish feed. Hence, government should encourage ornamental fish industry to develop and promote products in the worldwide. We focused on four topics concerning the ornamental fish:1) the competition of worldwide ornamental fish feed among Mainland China, and southeast Asia countries; 2) to analyze the dominance and future strategies of Taiwan ornamental fish feed; 3) to estimate the efficiency and to analyze the enhanced pigments of ornamental fish feed; 4) to set the certification standards for enhanced pigment of ornamental fish feed and formula standards for special functional fish feed. Also, we visited two local feed manufacture companies and discuss how much pigment should be included in the diets. Through the development of certification standard of ornamental fish feed, we can promote this industry into the top one level of the worldwide.
The survey on ornamental fish feed industry in Taiwan is to understand the value of domestic sale and export in recent year and compare the domestic and international brand in Taiwan on manufacturing technology, quality, marketing and etc. The survey questionnaire and interviews with producers and consumers in 2013 ornamental fish Expo to understand the current market situation and preference of ornamental fish feed. Totally, 11 feed producers and brand owners were interviewed face to face or on phone. Survey results show that in 2012 year the domestic value and export value of ornamental fish feed is 165 million and 265 million NT, respectively and the total value is 430 million NT. The Asia area exclude China and Japan has the highest percentage of 23.8% of the total value. On the results of consumer survey, 470 among the total of 492 questionnaires is valid. It showed that 34% consumers concerned the brand of the feed and 56% of consumer is willing to pay 100-500 NT in single purchase. The most well-known domestic brand for consumers in Taiwan is 56% and the most users’ brand is 30% of those responders. Among those international brands in Taiwan, the most well-known brand for consumers is 40% and the most users’ brand is 58% of those responders. On the competitive analysis, the biggest advantage of Taiwan's ornamental fish feed industry is processing technology and formulation. Although domestic feed company have the ability to produce high-quality ornamental fish feed, the ability of marketing brand in the world is inferior to Europe, America and Japan. In the future, Taiwan has to strengthen the marketing strategy, which is the way to expand world market for Taiwanese ornamental fish feed.4.09 g fish were fed with eleven commercial enhanced pigment feeds coming from domestic and foreign countries for two weeks. A control diet without pigment included was made by us. The efficiency of pigmentation was estimated by the color chip, digital image acquisition and processing (DIAP), and HPLC analysis. We also made questionnaires to investigate the behavior of the ornamental fish consumers. There were no significant different weigh gain of fish fed control and commercial diets. The astaxanthin concentration of commercial diets ranged from 5.7 to 1164.2 mg/kg. After one week feeding, the astaxanthin concentrations of fish fin of D grouper, the fish skin of C group and the fish muscle of I group showed the highest levels, 26.96 + 1.75, 22.28 + 0.14 and 18.55 + 0.14 mg/kg, respectively. However, after two weeks feeding, the astaxanthin concentrations of fish fin of B group, and the fish skin and fish muscle of E group showed the highest levels, 26.97 + 1.75, 20.74 + 0.37, and 7.6 + 0.17 mg/kg, respectively. Through DIAP observation, the highest level of L*, a*, b*, C* and H* values were found in H group (55), J group (22), D group (30), E group (35) and control group (1.4), respectively. Through color chip observation, the highest level was found in D group (43) and the lowest level was found in K group (16). The questionnaire was distributed to the ornamental fish trade show during October. From this survey, we know the following facts: 1) Taiwanese consumers like to raise small size ornamental fish; 2) they like the colorful ornamental fish; 3) they can afford 100g diet with below 250 NT dollars; 4) they are used to buy the domestic diets rather than alien diets.
8. "Development of key technology of leopard coral grouper" :