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研究報告

更新日期: 2015-02-09
點閱數: 3,490

我國石斑魚、鱸魚及鱘龍魚養殖產業發展策略之研究

年度 2014
計劃名稱 我國石斑魚、鱸魚及鱘龍魚養殖產業發展策略之研究
中文摘要     養殖產業包括生物性議題和經濟性議題,養殖過程中除需考量技術面,經濟面及市場面亦不可或缺。臺灣石斑魚和鱸魚養殖生產技術已純熟,唯銷售面受制於單一市場及外銷通路,以致容易造成產銷失衡,穀賤傷農。鱘龍魚養殖雖屬新興產業,產業之生產技術及經營管理尚需深入剖析,瞭解產業經營現況。因此,本研究針對石斑魚及鱸魚,應用經濟學及管理學原理,進行國際產銷分析,瞭解我國產業競爭力及國際潛力市場。鱘龍魚養殖藉由產業現況研究,分析其生產過程中之投入與產出,瞭解影響產業獲利之關鍵因素。以期作為臺灣石斑魚、鱸魚及鱘魚養殖產業發展策略之參考。     研究結果顯示,臺灣石斑魚與東南亞養殖出口競爭力評比,我國RCA指數達2.06領先各國。產業發展於短程策略:1.善用養殖經濟及技術;掌握關鍵繁養殖技術;加快產業升級速度;積極參與國際商展;開發新興國際市場。2.善用臺灣水產品檢驗制度;建立品牌形象;進行市場區隔。3.發揮產銷合作組織功能,建立產銷平台,擴大產業規模經濟,提升產品議價能力。4.分析我國石斑產業最適生產量;拓展臺灣內銷市場,作為產業發展基礎。遠程策略:1.成立中國大陸物流平台;善用電子商務通路;開發中國內陸市場。2.利用繁養殖技術,建立繁養殖中心;掌握養殖物種種苗資源,以利商品物種市場調節。3.開發各種加工產品型態,以利電子商務通路。4.強化養殖生產區整合;進行極端氣候影響相關研究,以利防禦措施與調適策略之擬訂。     鱸魚養殖產業分析結果,歐盟及東南亞是臺灣養殖鱸魚外銷之潛力市場。產業發展策略於短程方面:1.落實食品安全管理制度。2.利用生產技術優勢,積極開拓國際市場。3.建立鱸魚產量預警系統,防止產銷失衡。4.落實產銷制度,整合鱸魚產業鏈。遠程策略:1.強化養殖生產區整合,協助養殖產業升級。2.加強食品安全相關認證制度,建立鱸魚國際品牌形象。3.簽訂貿易協定,提升出口競爭力。     鱘龍魚養殖生產成本平均159元/公斤(8,120元/坪)、益本比1.39,產業目前不具有規模經濟效應。新竹地區主要進行成魚養成階段,且採用複合式經營,獲利能力最高。山區及山泉水養殖經濟效益較佳。未來產業必須加強生產技術研發及產品行銷,以建立內需市場為首要目標。     據此,石斑魚、鱸魚及鱘龍魚養殖均為我國重要的養殖魚種,目前產業發展於產、製、銷均有需要解決的議題,藉由本研究之綜合分析,歸納未來產業發展之近程與遠程策略提供產、官、學參考,以期產業之永續經營。
英文摘要    The aquaculture industry covers the biological and economic issues, and the culture process must take into account the technical, economic and market facets. There are mature aquaculture production techniques of grouper and sea bass in Taiwan, but the sales is confined to a single market and limited export channel leads to the unbalance between production and sales. The sturgeon culture belongs to an emerging industry that needs in-depth analysis of its production techniques, operation and management, in order to gain a full understanding of the current operation status. Therefore, this study applied the economic and management theories for international production and sales analysis of grouper and sea bass, to explore the industrial competitiveness and international potential markets of the aquaculture industry in Taiwan. For sturgeon culture, through the study of current status of this industry, the input and output in the production process were analyzed to investigate key factors affecting its profitability. The findings can serve as a reference for development of the grouper, sea bass and sturgeon culture industry in Taiwan.    The results indicate that, comparing the export competitiveness of grouper culture in Taiwan and in Southeast Asia, the RCA index of Taiwan is 2.06, which is higher than that of other countries. The short-term strategies for developing the aquaculture industry are: (1) utilize the aquaculture economics and techniques, grasp key culture techniques, accelerating industrial upgrading, actively participate in international trade fairs, and develop emerging international markets; (2) use the aquatic product inspection system of Taiwan, build brand image, market segmentation; (3) utilize production and sales cooperatives, construct the production-sales platform, expand the economy of scale of the industry, and enhance its bargaining power; (4) analyze the optimal production of Taiwan’s grouper industry, expand the domestic market of Taiwan as the foundation for development of the industry. The long-term strategies include: (1) establish the Mainland Chinese logistics platform, utilize e-commerce channels, develop the Mainland Chinese market; (2) employ the propagation and culture techniques to construct a propagation and culture center, grasp the aquatic breed resources for market regulation of commercial species; (3) develop a variety of processed products for e-commerce channels; (4) enhance the integration of aquaculture production regions; and conduct relevant studies on the influence of extreme weather conditions, so as to take prevention measures and adjustment strategies.     The analysis of sea bass culture industry revealed that the EU and Southeast Asian countries are the potential markets for the exportation of sea bass from Taiwan. The short-term strategies for developing the industry include: (1) implement the food safety management system; (3) adopt the production techniques and actively expand the international markets; (3) establish the sea bass production control and early-warning system to prevent the demand-supply imbalance; (4) implement the product and sales system and integrate the sea bass industry chain. The long-term strategies comprise: (1) enhance the integration of aquaculture production regions and assist the upgrade of aquaculture industry; (2) strengthen the food safety certification system to establish the international brand image of sea bass; (3) sign trade agreements to raise export competitiveness.     The production cost of sturgeon culture is 159 TWDs / kilogram (8,120 TWDs / 3.30m2) on average and the benefit-cost ratio is 1.39, so the industry has not achieved scale economy effect. Breeders in Hsinchu area mostly farm adult fish with composite operations, thus are able to achieve high profitability. The economic benefit of aquaculture economy in mountainous areas by spring water is also good. In the future, the R&D of production techniques and the product marketing should be enhanced with the domestic market as the primary goal.     Grouper, sea bass and sturgeon are important fishes cultured in Taiwan; however, the current industrial development is restricted by issues concerning production, processing and sales. Through the comprehensive analysis, this study proposed short-term and long-term strategies for future development of the aquaculture industry, which can serve as a reference information for industry, government and research institutes for sustainable operation of the industry.  
計畫編號 103農科-11.3.1-漁-F3(1)
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