|| The aquaculture industry covers the biological and economic issues, and the culture process must take into account the technical, economic and market facets. There are mature aquaculture production techniques of grouper and sea bass in Taiwan, but the sales is confined to a single market and limited export channel leads to the unbalance between production and sales. The sturgeon culture belongs to an emerging industry that needs in-depth analysis of its production techniques, operation and management, in order to gain a full understanding of the current operation status. Therefore, this study applied the economic and management theories for international production and sales analysis of grouper and sea bass, to explore the industrial competitiveness and international potential markets of the aquaculture industry in Taiwan. For sturgeon culture, through the study of current status of this industry, the input and output in the production process were analyzed to investigate key factors affecting its profitability. The findings can serve as a reference for development of the grouper, sea bass and sturgeon culture industry in Taiwan.
The results indicate that, comparing the export competitiveness of grouper culture in Taiwan and in Southeast Asia, the RCA index of Taiwan is 2.06, which is higher than that of other countries. The short-term strategies for developing the aquaculture industry are: (1) utilize the aquaculture economics and techniques, grasp key culture techniques, accelerating industrial upgrading, actively participate in international trade fairs, and develop emerging international markets; (2) use the aquatic product inspection system of Taiwan, build brand image, market segmentation; (3) utilize production and sales cooperatives, construct the production-sales platform, expand the economy of scale of the industry, and enhance its bargaining power; (4) analyze the optimal production of Taiwan’s grouper industry, expand the domestic market of Taiwan as the foundation for development of the industry. The long-term strategies include: (1) establish the Mainland Chinese logistics platform, utilize e-commerce channels, develop the Mainland Chinese market; (2) employ the propagation and culture techniques to construct a propagation and culture center, grasp the aquatic breed resources for market regulation of commercial species; (3) develop a variety of processed products for e-commerce channels; (4) enhance the integration of aquaculture production regions; and conduct relevant studies on the influence of extreme weather conditions, so as to take prevention measures and adjustment strategies.
The analysis of sea bass culture industry revealed that the EU and Southeast Asian countries are the potential markets for the exportation of sea bass from Taiwan. The short-term strategies for developing the industry include: (1) implement the food safety management system; (3) adopt the production techniques and actively expand the international markets; (3) establish the sea bass production control and early-warning system to prevent the demand-supply imbalance; (4) implement the product and sales system and integrate the sea bass industry chain. The long-term strategies comprise: (1) enhance the integration of aquaculture production regions and assist the upgrade of aquaculture industry; (2) strengthen the food safety certification system to establish the international brand image of sea bass; (3) sign trade agreements to raise export competitiveness.
The production cost of sturgeon culture is 159 TWDs / kilogram (8,120 TWDs / 3.30m2) on average and the benefit-cost ratio is 1.39, so the industry has not achieved scale economy effect. Breeders in Hsinchu area mostly farm adult fish with composite operations, thus are able to achieve high profitability. The economic benefit of aquaculture economy in mountainous areas by spring water is also good. In the future, the R＆D of production techniques and the product marketing should be enhanced with the domestic market as the primary goal.
Grouper, sea bass and sturgeon are important fishes cultured in Taiwan; however, the current industrial development is restricted by issues concerning production, processing and sales. Through the comprehensive analysis, this study proposed short-term and long-term strategies for future development of the aquaculture industry, which can serve as a reference information for industry, government and research institutes for sustainable operation of the industry.