4-1 Taiwan’s Ocean Policy
Development and Vision of Taiwan’s Marine Affairs – Ocean prospering the country
After lifting of curfew in 1987, the sea was open to the people, and the general public had chances to get close to the sea. Realizing the importance of sustainable utilization of marine resources, the government began to focus on the development goal of an ocean State. The actions performed include:
Convening “Seminar on Ocean State”
Establishment of the Coast Guard Administration, as a competent authority for safeguarding the maritime areas of the country, enabling Taiwan to become one of the few modernized countries having separate forces for navy and maritime enforcement.
Announcement of the first “Ocean White Paper”, publicizing Taiwan’s development of ocean policy and its four visions and three goals. In the white paper, Taiwan’s marine affairs were divided into three chapters, namely, safety of maritime areas, sustainability of marine resources, and ocean education and culture.
“Marine Affairs Promotion Committee” was established. It was chaired by the premier, who coordinated with respective agencies for joint promotion of marine affairs, and invited experts and elites from various sectors to be committee members. The committee has six sections, the marine strategy section, the safe maritime jurisdiction section, the marine resources section, the marine industries section, the marine culture section and the marine science section.
Announcement of the National Ocean Policy Guidelines, giving 9 policy visions, hoping to create healthy ocean environment, safe ocean activities and prosperous ocean industries, while advancing national marine interests, actively protecting ocean ecologies, and establishing sustainable homeland, so as to build itself into a quality Ocean State.
1. Ascertaining that Taiwan is an Ocean State, thus the oceans and the seas are its assets, and recognizing that the very existence and development of the country relies upon the oceans and the seas.
2. Enjoying and fulfilling the rights and obligations bestowed upon the State by the international law of the sea, and echoing the call of the international community for sustainable development.
3. Re-acknowledging the oceanic elements of national development, respecting the maritime experience and wisdom of the indigenous peoples and establishing a maritime perspective that is in line with the national interests.
4. Surveying the national assets on the seas and the oceans, understanding the marine needs of society, grasping the nature of ocean activities and planning ocean development accordingly.
5. Adopting the perspectives of sustainable ocean ecosystems and inter-generational justice, establishing an ocean management regime for ocean environment protection, marine resources conservation and rational ocean utilization.
6. Strengthening the capacity of maritime law enforcement in order to create a stable marine legal order and safe ocean environment.
7. Creating a favorable policy and practical context to substantively encourage ocean industry development.
8. Conducting marine scientific research with the orientation of national needs so as to guide the development of various levels of aquatic, maritime and marine education in the benefit of cultivating marine talents.
9. Providing a safe and stable ocean environment to encourage the public to get closer to the oceans for cultivating the marine awareness and culture.
The Ocean Policy White Paper provided the vision of constructing Taiwan into an ecological, safe and prosperous ocean state, covering 6 goals and various strategies.
Six goals and strategies
1. Protecting maritime rights and interests, ensuring national development.
2. Intensifying maritime law enforcement, maintaining marine safety.
3. Protecting the ocean environment, fostering marine resources.
4. Bettering the management of environment, developing ocean industries.
5. Cultivating the maritime culture, shaping national character.
6. Nurturing ocean talents, enhancing marine scientific studies.
The Marine Affairs Promotion Committee was restructured to form “Task Force for Maritime Affairs, Executive Yuan”, to continue the promotion of maritime affairs and serve as a platform for inter-agency coordination.
The Government Re-organization Act was passed by the Legislative Yuan, and the establishment of the Council of Marine Affairs was planned.
Council of Marine Affairs -- Department of Planning, Department of Marine Resources, Department of Maritime Safety, Department of Science, Technology, Culture and Education, Department of International Development, Coast Guard Administration, Personnel Department, Ethics Department, Department of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Department of Information, Ocean Affairs Advisory Committee
Perspectives Striding to Achieve:
1. Develop ocean strategy, ridding the old concept of closing the door of the country as in the era of cold war, matching towards the ocean.
2. Open the South China Sea, for joint development, promoting stability in the Asia Pacific Region.
3. Encourage development of ocean industries.
4. Relax and amend relevant legislations, promote activities for the general public get closer to the sea.
5. Select by district the most appropriate places for establishing bases, to promote marine eco-tourism.
6. Safeguard livelihood of fisheries, and strictly prohibit Mainland Chinese fishermen from crossing the border for fishing.
7. Prosper the economy of fishing villages, and create good quality fishing communities.
8. Enhance ocean education, and promote nationwide concept of loving the sea.
9. Adapt to climate change, and enhance resilience in ocean and coastal disasters.
10. Train personnel for dealing in foreign affairs, and actively participate in international organizations.
4-2. Achievements of Taiwan’s Ocean Education
Training of Fishermen
Fishermen who work on board fishing vessels must have professional working knowledge. In order to improve the quality of local fishermen, in the past, the Deep Sea Fishery Research and Development Center was responsible for providing courses to fishermen. In view of the widespread of fishermen in the country, for convenience sake, as well as integrating the educational resources of marine vocational schools, the Center commissioned Kaohsiung University of Marine Science and Technology and 7 others to conduct fishermen training locally. The feedbacks from fishermen were positive.
Holding Ocean Educational Propaganda
The 2010 Ocean Law and Policy Practical Training providing Practical Experience to Students
In order to promote ocean education nationwide, in 2008, the Ministry of Education (MOE) implemented “Pioneering Program on Ocean Education” with the establishment of program office, and taking the goals of “Establishment of Ocean State” and “Prosperity of the Country from Ocean”, as set forth in “National Ocean Policy Guideline”. In cooperation with the Coast Guard Administration, the Fisheries Agency, Fisheries Research Institute, Marine Science Museum, and academic institutes and universities, MOE conducted a series of ocean knowledge educational activities, including, seminars on general education of ocean, legal debates on ocean law, and ocean education promotion, providing general public wide range of knowledge of the ocean, from the angle of science, law and policy, and culture.
The program office designated the first Saturday of every November to be “Ocean Knowledge Day”, inviting ocean-related public sector and marine science industries to give exhibition. Through exhibition of actual substance, video broadcasting, in-person DIY, and interactive games provided by participating bodies, incorporating education and entertainment into one, it offered public education on ocean from different dimensions. During the activities between 2009 and 2011, some 15,000 people visited the exhibitions, and through lively theme activities, students and children were able to gain new information relating to the ocean from self-experiencing, and further understanding the ocean, and they tend to like the ocean, and become protectors of the ocean, and further allowing ocean to be part of the life of the general public.
In addition, the MOE implemented the Project on Training of Talents on Marine Science and Technology. Under the project, assistance was provided to universities for giving ocean-related courses, and incorporating with industries and public sector for providing practical training courses. Between 2009 and 2011, 68 persons were trained. It was envisaged that through practical linkage between the industry, public sector, and the academics, in providing students with practice and experience in ocean education, training of high level personnel with substantive practice would be achieved.