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World Oceans Day

Last Update:2015-12-18

III. Achievements of Taiwan’s Marine Protected Areas

(1) Achievements in Conservation and Enforcement of MPAs

1. Dongsha Atoll National Park

Management Actions: The work on ecological conservation of the Dongsha National Park and its surrounding marine ecologies was planned and conducted by Dongsha National Park Administration, with efforts in restoring biodiversity.

Ecological resources:
(1) By 2011 there were 302 species of coral.
(2) Possesses the largest seagrass bed in Taiwan, having an area of over 1,185 hectares. Thick seagrass beds are excellent spawning, feeding and hiding places for fish, shrimps, crabs, and sea turtles. It was recorded that green turtles returned to the island for nesting after leaving for over 16 years, witnessing the success of conservation in Dongsha Atoll National Park.
(3) Concurrently, there are 679 fish species found and documented in Dongsha Atoll. In 2011, the smallest reef fish in the world, Trimmatom nanus, was found, and newly documented in Taiwan.

2. Kenting National Park

Achievements in Conservation: 1382 fish species and more than 200 reef coral species were documented.

Achievements in Resource Conservation, Management and Enforcement in Kenting National Park

The quantity of Illegal Net Gears Dismantled and Missions of At-Sea Surveillance
Single layer net torn down (m.) 1,055 2,270 930 270 4,525
Triple layer net torn down (m.) 1,560 2,180 1,400 420 5,560
Number of Buoys Dismantled 38 10 29 8 85
Trips of Daytime Surveillance 36 34 113 29 212
Trips of Nighttime Surveillance 8 17 28 24 77
Statistics on Cracking Down in Violation of the National Park Act
Angling or catching of fish (cases) 11 17 20 16 64
Poaching on coral (cases) 0 0 1 2 3
Achievements in Sea Cleaning
Trash (Kg.) 1,305 1,215 1,770 730 5,020

3. Mianhua Islet and Huaping Islet Wildlife Refuges and Penghu Cat Islet Seabird Refuge

Mianhua Islet and Huaping Islet Wildlife Refuges: According to the conservation plan, they were divided into core areas and buffer areas. In 2011, 6 shore landings were carried out on the islets, putting 6 signboards. In addition, for the dissemination of the concept of conservation of ecology to the general public, 5 workshops were convened. A 5-minute video on the conservation areas was taken, for future work of propaganda.

Penghu Cat Islet Seabirds Refuge: In 2011, 100 surveillance trips were conducted, and 1 survey on the ecology of seabirds was made, to understand the status of seabird resources.

4. Penghu Columnar Basalt Natural Reserve and Xuhai Guanyinbi Natural Reserve

Penghu Columnar Basalt Natural Reserve: 100 surveillance trips were conducted. 2000 pamphlets on Penghu basalt were printed, for propaganda.

Xuhai Guanyinbi Natural Reserve: In 2011, 20 surveillance and cleaning trips were conducted. Application for 300 tourists daily is acceptable for environmental education touring under the narration of tour guides.

Source of information: Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan

5. Penghu National Designated Scenic Area

Achievements of Clean Environment Campaigns conducted by Penghu National Scenic Area Administration.
Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total
Number of campaigns 3 4 6 7 20 (jointly organized by 60 agencies & CSOs)
People motivated 605 665 1,290 1,768 4,328
Trash (Kg.) 43,900 32,560 565,375 280,910 922,745

6. Taitung County – Ludao Fisheries Resources Conservation Area

Conservation Measures:
(1) Anyone who carries out activities relating to tourism, recreation and fishing or undergoing exploitation in the conservation area, should not damage environment of the habitats of marine animals.
(2) Shilong and Chiakou Sub-areas have been designated as diving spots, and no fishing is permitted all round year. In other sub-areas during the time opened for fishing, catching of lobster measuring less than 20 cm. and abalone of shell length less than 5 cm. is prohibited, and using of scuba for harvesting any aquatic animals and plants is not permitted. In addition, in Guiwan Sub-area, no catching of teira batfish fish is permitted. Harvesting of any aquatic animals and plants by any means is not permitted, except during the time opened for fishing.

Management Actions: In 2007, the Coast Guard Administration, Executive Yuan established the Ludao Conservation Squad, to protect marine environmental ecology and fisheries resources in the surrounding sea, focusing on cracking down illegal coral harvesting and violation of the provisions of the Fisheries Act, thus improving the conservation of fisheries resources in Ludao.

Conservation Achievements:
(1) Documented 26 family and 119 species of fish.
(2) Enriched diversity, coverage and abundance of corals.
(3) Echinoderms consist mainly, Echinostrephus aciculatus, Diadema savignyi, Echinothrix calamaris, and Echinometra mathaei, and crinoids consist mainly, Comatulida, Comanthus parvicirrus, Comanthus bennetti, and Comatella nigra.
(4) Long-leg lobsters and hairy lobsters are crustaceans mostly found.
(5) In Chiakou 34 families and 103 species of mollusks were documented, and in Shilong, 18 families and 36 species, and in Guiwan 24 families and 44 species.
(6) 21 species of alga were documented.

7. Taitung – Fushan Fisheries Resources Conservation Area

Conservation Measures:
(1) When carrying out guided ecological tour in the conservation area, there should be no act that may damage the environment of habitats of marine animals.
(2) No harvesting by any means of any aquatic animals and plants in “Core areas” is permitted, except for the purpose of research authorized by the government of Taitung County.
(3) No harvesting by any means of any aquatic animals and plants in “Areas for sustainable use” is permitted, except for the purpose of research and other act of need authorized by the government of Taitung County.

Management Actions:
(1) In 1997 the formation of a voluntary surveillance squad began, with 30 members, comprising fishermen in Shanyuan, Fushan and Fugong, to perform random surveillance of the fishing activities of coastal and offshore fisheries.
(2) The work of surveillance and cracking down of violations is to be carried out by the Coastal Patrol Directorate General, Coast Guard Administration.

Conservation Achievements: 23 families and 49 species of fish were documented in intertidal terrains; 21 families and 67 species of fish with economic value were documented.

Fushan Fisheries Resources Conservation Area

8. Pingtung County – Liuqiu Fisheries Resources Conservation Area

Conservation Measures: Harvesting by any means (including bare-handed), species under conservation in the conservation area is prohibited, except for academic research authorized by the competent authority.

Management Actions:
(1) Under the Outer Islands Construction Funds, budgets were allocated for employing personnel for carrying out the work of surveillance.
(2) The work of surveillance and cracking down of violations is to be carried out by the Coastal Patrol Directorate General and the Maritime Patrol Directorate General of the Coast Guard Administration.

Conservation Achievements:
(1) In Yufu Port, 27 families and 79 species of fish were documented, in Huaping Islet, 19 families and 68 species documented, in Haizikou, 17 families and 48 species, in Shanfu Port, 22 families and 71 species.
(2) Enriched diversity and abundance of corals.
(3) Crinoids and sea urchins are the echinoderms commonly found, and the sea urchins are mostly non-edible.
(4) 18 families and 66 species crustaceans documented.
(5) 43 families and 116 species of mollusks were recorded in Yufu Port.
(6) Sub-intertidal terrain is rich in alga.

9. Kaohsiung – Nansha (Spratly) Taiping Island Sea Turtles Nesting Refuge

Conservation Measures: No access for harvesting of protected species by any means or conducting any act damaging the habitat environment of aquatic animals is permitted.

Management Actions: Taiping Island is rich in coral reef ecological resources, and has some 300 species of coral. It is a typical aggregating place for coral reef fish species, where 62 families and 515 species of fish and 2 families and 5 species of seaweeds have been documented. The work of sea turtle conservation is an issue which has drawn international attention. According to field survey, the Nansha (Spratly) Islands are important nesting grounds for green turtles. They will come ashore to nest in April, once every 2 to 4 years. Female turtles lay an average of 100 eggs, while the hatching rate is only 50-70%. Any incidents in the course of their nesting, hatching or growing, will endanger their population. Due to the remote location of Taiping Island, Nansha (Spratly) Islands, stationed by only a small number of coast guard personnel, where anthropogenic disturbance is limited, excellent achievements in conservation are seen.

Green Turtle nesting on the island.

10. Changhua County – Mud Shrimp (Upogebia) Fisheries Resources Conservation Area

Conservation Measures:
(1) Entirely closed for fishing in “Core Areas”. No access for harvesting of protected species by any means or conducting any act damaging habitat environment of aquatic animals is permitted.
(2) Time opened for fishing in the “Sanctuaries” of the Conservation Areas will be announced accordingly depending on the achievements of the conservation. During the time opened for fishing, and catching of mud shrimps within the conservation area, fishermen should apply to the Changhua District Fishermen’s Association or the local the “mud shrimps management committee” for the quantity to be caught, while prohibiting catching female shrimps with carapace under 13 mm long, and male shrimps with carapace under 11 mm. When the catch of mud shrimp reaches 2 million pieces in number, the government of Changhua County will announce banning of catch totally.

Management Actions:
(1) The Changhua District Fishermen’s Association will present annually its monitoring plan, to monitor the ecology and population of mud shrimps, serving as basis for management.
(2) The Changhua District Fishermen’s Association formed a mud shrimp conservation team, to patrol the conservation area.
(3) The Coastal Patrol Directorate General of the Coast Guard Administration conducts the work of surveillance and cracking down violations.

Conservation Achievements: In recent years, the work of conservation of mud shrimps in Shengang has excellent achievements, including the improvement of habitat environment and population increase of mud shrimps, as well as, promoting fishermen to observe the rules of conservation of fisheries resources, and developing ocean education and ecology experiencing of the general public. It is planned to establish additional mud shrimps conservation areas in Wanggong, Fangyuan Township.

Kinmen Horseshoe Crab Conservation Area

(2) Achievements in the Enforcement of the Coastal and Offshore Fisheries

Past and Present Management of the Coastal and Offshore Fisheries

Past and Present Management of the Coastal and Offshore Fisheries

What are coastal and offshore fisheries?

◎ The types of fisheries include: gill-net fishery, trawl fishery, longline fishery, hook and line fishery, troll fishery, pot fishery, ring net fishery, torch light net fishery, Danish seine fishery, mackerel purse seine fishery, larval fishery, flying fish egg fishery, precious coral fishery, set-net fishery, and fry fishery.
◎ More than 80% of Taiwan’s fishing boats operate in this area, among which about 20,000 are artisanal fishing boats.
◎ Annual production about 180-200 thousand tons.

Past Management

◎ There were large number of artisanal fishermen, and they usually did not have the concept of conservation.
◎ Control by means of licensing on the fishery, rather a static form of management.
◎ Encourage building of vessels and promotion of fishery productions.

Present Management

◎ Control the number of vessels.
◎ Using vessel voyage data recorder (VDR) to monitor the change of fishing grounds and fishing activities during fishing seasons, for establishing a dynamic management system.
◎ Requiring specific vessels to install vessel monitoring system (VMS) to monitor real-time fishing activities of vessels.
◎ Setting of closed fishing areas, closed fishing season, control total catch, filling in of daily catch logbooks, and establishment of port and at-sea inspection mechanism.

In view of international trend in conservation, and realizing the reduction of the global fisheries resources, the government has been actively promoting fisheries resources conservation and management measures, in providing chances for resources to recuperate.

Policy Measures

1. Control and reduce the number of vessels, and reduce the fishing time。

Vessel building restriction
As from 1967 the measure on building replacement of trawlers under 300 GRT was implemented, as from 1991 the measure of building replacement covered for all types of fishing vessels, except reefer carriers over 2000 GRT.

Vessel Buybacks
As from 1991 vessel buyback program was implemented progressively. To-date the government brought back a total of 3,258 fishing vessels (283,644 GRT) and 1,646 fishing rafts.

Encouragement in fishing layoffs
Fishing vessels/rafts are encouraged to undergo fishing layoffs in port, with provision of fishing layoff encouragement fee for those fishing at sea for 90 days and layoff in port for 90 days.

2. Building excellent environment of fishing grounds, for restocking fisheries resources

Deployment of artificial reefs
In order to improve the environment of fishing grounds, and restock fisheries resources, artificial reefs were deployed in 88 localities, with sinking of cement reefs, electricity wire pole reefs, steel and iron reefs, vessel reefs, naval ship reefs, etc.

Artificial Fish Reefs

Release of fish fry

Releasing of fish fry at beach

Healthy fish seeds are produced in hatchery by means of the technology of artificial propagation, and released to the sea for restocking of fisheries resources.

Concurrently, approximately 10 million fries are released annually, with main species including threadfin fish, sand snapper, seabreams, snappers, groupers, etc.

Fish species often seen in fry releasing

Recreational fishery
◎ On 1 March 1988, the Ministry of Interior promulgated the Regulations on Sea Angling in Taiwan, allowing angling boats to carry citizens holding sea angling license to conduct at-sea leisure angling.
◎ On 26 May 1993, the Council of Agriculture promulgated the Regulations for Recreational Fishery, with the aim of guiding fishing vessels to undergo restructuring to recreational fishery, for carrying passengers to conduct such leisure activities as, sea angling, and watching of fishing operations, marine animals and ecologies.
◎ The kinds of recreational fishing activities permissible to be conducted by passengers carrying recreational fishery vessels:
(1) Sea angling: including pole and line, hand line, and troll.
(2) Marine eco-tour: such as whale watching.
(3) Watch fishing operations: such as, set-net, cage farming, squid fishing, etc.
(4) Sightseeing of coastal scenery.
◎ With nearly 20 years of development, recreational fishery has reached its maturity. By the end of 2011, there were 206 recreational fishing vessels in Taiwan, distributing in 58 fishing ports. Among these vessels, 38 were full-time, and 168 were part-time operating, annually carried between 800 thousand and 1 million trip/persons for marine leisure activities.

Passengers carried by recreational fishing vessels in recent 5 years
Year Persons
2007 951,298
2008 1,131,032
2009 909,558
2010 828,038
2011 952,555
Development of whale watching in Taiwan
Year No. of passengers
2007 235,000
2008 281,000
2009 259,000
2010 216,000
2011 291,000

Source: Taiwan Cetacean Society

Visions in the Development of Fishing Ports

The Program on Revival of Coastal Areas and Building of Fishery Infrastructure was planned, modifying traditional fishing ports to modernized fishing ports with the functions of fishery, leisure and sightseeing, and relaxing the policy of restrictions on coastal yachting. In recent years, in order to promote the goal of diverse uses of fishing ports, the Fisheries Agency has developed at-sea leisure and sightseeing activities and multiple uses of fishing ports, creating more values in the utilities of fishing ports.

(3) Conservation and Management of Stocks of Fish Species

Conservation and Management of Stocks of Fish Species

Sustainable Utilization of Shark Resources

◎ Full utilization of sharks, a role in traditional dietary culture
Sharks, who are top predators in the marine ecosystem, protect the natural balance in the marine food chain. Taiwan has a long history in the utilization of shark resources. People have long been using the entire shark (full utilization). Using of shark’s meat for all kinds of delicacies has been a traditional dietary culture in Taiwan.

◎ Compliance with international conservation measures, initiating measures on “shark’s fin naturally attached to body” and “regulations on the import of shark’s fin”
For the sake of sustainable utilization of shark resources, in 2001 the Shark Resources Management Group was formed, and in 2006 the National Plan of Action on the Conservation of Shark Resources (NPOA-Sharks) was announced, and at the same time, transforming the conservation and management measures on sharks adopted by the respective regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) into domestic regulations. They include prohibiting fishing vessels conducting shark finning, prohibiting the catch of shark species with depleting population, and requiring the ratio of fin to carcass not to exceed 5% in the shark landed. In addition, as from January 2012, enforcement of the measure on “Shark’s Fin naturally Attached to Body” began, and on 1 June 2012, “Regulations on the Import of Shark’s Fin” became effective, requiring prior permission from the Fisheries Agency, all imports of shark’s fin, and only permissible imports of fins from sharks caught by vessels on the authorized vessel list of RFMOs and from countries not under sanction by RFMOs, as further contributions to shark resources conservation. In 2008, Taiwan announced the prohibition on catching, selling and retaining of whale sharks and their products.

◎ DNA testing technology, identifying various shark species from fins

Timetable for the implementation of Shark’s fin naturally attached to body

In 2011 DNA testing technology was first used on sharks. Samples of fresh shark fins whose species could not be identified from external appearance were taken from various shark producing fish markets such as Su’ao, and fin products were also taken from the retail markets, to undergo testing. Identification of the belonging of the fin to the shark species was successful in the testing. It served as scientific evidence in promoting succeeding management measures.

The result of DNA tests of shark’s fins shows the composition of shark species (in the 89 samples tested, 55 are from the local fish markets, and 34 from the local consumer markets) most of them were blue shark (Prionace glauca), and none of them were great white shark (Carchardon carcharias), basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus), or whale shark (Rhincodon typus), which are included in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Tender Giant guardian of the Ocean – Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus)
“Whale shark ”commonly known as “Tofu Shark”, is a gentle animal, which filter feeds on marine plankton. Measuring approximately 20 m. long (about 6 stories tall), weighing 40 tons, it is the largest fish in the world.

It matures very slowly, slow in reaching sexual maturity (sexual maturity at about 30 years old), and has the characteristic of giving very few offspring and long lifecycle. Over-exploitation and overuse of the species will endanger its population. Whale shark is a fish species, protected globally. Taiwan began applying control of total catch of whale shark from 2002, and implemented management measures prohibiting catching, selling, retaining, importing and exporting whale shark and its products, for protecting whale shark resources.

In cooperation with academic institutes, for better understanding of the ecology of this species, research has been conducting by means of tagging and satellite based tracking, to collect data of its migration, as well as releasing those which were trapped in set-nets. To-date 341 whale sharks were placed with conventional tags, and 40 with archival tags, and succeeded in tracking the migratory routes of 9 whale sharks, through satellite-based transponders.

First whale shark tagged
Reporting Table for Incidental Catch of Whale Sharks
Satellite Tracking of Whale Shark’s Migratory Routes

Swim with the Smarty of the Ocean – Saving Grounded Cetaceans
The Council of Agriculture has been putting continuous efforts in the work of conservation of cetaceans. Apart from conducting basic ecological surveys and scientific research, to protect these animals by law, it has promulgated that all cetaceans are protected wildlife in accordance with article 4 of the Wildlife Conservation Act.

◎ Establishment of “Cetaceans Grounding Rescue Network” in 1996
Taiwan Cetaceans Grounding Rescue Network was formed as a nationwide cetaceans rescue system, with the participation of conservationists from the local governments, Coast Guard Administration, Fire Departments, International Headquarters S.A.R. Taiwan, non-government conservation groups, academic institutes, and science museums, to provide timely rescue and treatments in case of grounding of cetaceans in Taiwan. As of May 2012, 749 rescue operations were carried out, involving groundings of 982 cetaceans.

In 2000 in the first rescue of grounded cetacean was successful
See Picture

Educational Extensions on Cetaceans
Every year the work of cetaceans educational extension has been carrying out. They include training of volunteers on cetacean conservation, photo documentations on cetaceans, cetacean conservation carnival, medical workshop on cetaceans, etc. In 2000, for the first time the Ministry of Interior granted the provision of service certificate to cetacean conservation volunteers. Between 2003 and 2011, rescue and release of 10 cetaceans were successful. For the first time in Asia, satellite transponder was installed on 1 small sperm whale, for tracking of its migratory route, and the incident was placed as a news headline of that day.

Scientific Research
DNA samples of cetaceans were collected beginning from 2004, and research institutes were commissioned to establish DNA database for accumulation of information, enabling rapid identification of the species of cetaceans in rescuing grounded animals or arrest in illegal cetaceans cases. Focused on Taiwan’s previous cases of cetacean groundings, diagnostic analyses on disease were conducted, and standard operating procedure on health inspection of grounded cetaceans was established. Database on cetacean groundings was established, with some 700 sets of data on file. Ecological surveys and physiological researches on cetaceans found in the waters of Taiwan will continue.

Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis)
The work on conservation of Chinese white dolphin has been an issue of concern in Taiwan. Since 2005, the Council of Agriculture has been conducting survey and research on Chinese white dolphin, including ecological distribution of population, reason of its vulnerability. It was found that the range distribution of its population covers areas between Lungfang Port in Miaoli County and northern part of Jiangjun District in Tainan City, with sighting of fewer than 90 animals. Initial planning of important habitat for Chinese white dolphin includes an area of 763 square kilometers with Lungfang Port in Miaoli County as its northern boundary, Sandingzhou Lighthouse off Chiayi County as its southern boundary, its western boundary bounded by a line 103 nautical miles seaward from coast, but depending on the range of activities of the animals, and its eastern boundary bounded by a line 50 meters seaward from coast, including main estuaries of rivers.

◎ Return to Home of Ocean – Rescue and Conservation of Sea Turtles

Concurrently there are 2 families and 7 species of sea turtles in the world. They distribute mostly in the tropical and temperate waters, vastly extending all oceans of the world, including the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Green turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, olive Ridley turtle, loggerhead turtle, and leatherback turtle, among which green turtle is the most commonly seen sea turtle in the waters around Taiwan.

In the early days, green turtles are widely distributed along the eastern coast of Taiwan, Su’ao, Nanfang’ao, southern part of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Liuqiu, and the Dongsha Islands and Taiping Island in the Nansha Islands. In the recent decades, due to over-development of beaches, digging of turtle eggs by coastal inhabitants, incidental catch in trawl and gill-net fishing, the population of green turtle has drastically declined, and few beaches on Wang’an in Penghu County and Orchid Island in Taitung County are the remaining spots, where green turtles can be seen every summer returning from the sea for nesting.

In 1989, the Council of Agriculture announced all sea turtles to be endangered species, according to the Wildlife Conservation Act, and sea turtles were under strict protection, and should not be disturbed, abused, hunted, killed, traded, displayed, exhibited, imported and exported, retained or raised. According to that Act, the government of Penghu County announced in 1996, that Wang’an Island to be Green Turtle Nesting Refuge, every 1 May to 31 October during nesting season of green turtle nighttime control will be exercised to protect safe nesting of green turtles and safe returning of their juveniles to the sea.

Though sea turtles can be raised, artificial propagation is still not possible, and in addition, their raising requires large space of seawater. Concurrently only injured turtles were placed in temporary shelters for rescue and recovery, and they were returned to sea in healthy condition. Between 1997 and 2011, some 300 sea turtles were rescued and housed, and 60% were successfully treated and returned to the open sea.

Source: Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan

(4) Enforcement Achievements in the Far Sea Fisheries

Vessel Monitoring System (VMS)

What is VMS?
VMS which is the abbreviation for vessel monitoring system, is a system that will enable monitoring of the fishing activities of fishing vessels, through which their position information transmitted via satellite to a land-base monitoring center, are monitored in a near real-time basis, without restrictions of geographic environment.

Why is it necessary to install VMS?
1. Monitoring the positions of fishing vessels, for provision to scientists for stock assessments.
2. In consistent with the rules of international organizations or the need of those countries which whom vessels have access fishing agreement, to enable fishing activities to be conducted in a transparent manner.
3. Enabling immediate getting hold of the vessel positions for rescue in case of urgent need.

Observers on Duty
1. To realize the actual fishing operations of fishing vessels, respective RFMOs have adopted resolutions requiring fishing vessels of their members to implement observer programs with a certain coverage. Concurrently, purse seine fishing vessels operating in the Pacific Ocean have 100% observer coverage, and longline fishing vessels operating in the three oceans of the world have observer coverage of over 5%.
2. Observers in the far seas fisheries are the vanguard in Taiwan’s far seas fisheries management. In order to accomplish their duties, they have to endure the life on board which can only be experienced in person rather than from words.

3. Achievements on Observers Missions in the Far Seas Fisheries in the past 3 years
(1) Number of observers deployed annually: 56 persons
(2) Observer days carried out annually: approx. 8,000 days
(3) Samples of fish and marine organisms taken annually: approx. 4,400 samples
(4) Photos of fish and marine organisms taken annually: Approx. 14,000 pictures

Taiwan’s Contributions in the Far Seas Fisheries Research
◎ Improve the academic level in stock assessments and analyses of fisheries resources.
◎ As from 2001, the number of scientific papers in academic journals and meeting reports published accumulated to 109 papers.
◎ As from 2005, the scientific papers in academic journals and meeting reports published cover 83% of the total publication.
◎ Publication of papers in academic journals and meeting reports shows an increasing trend.
◎ Increase of participation in scientific meetings.
◎ Quality of research highly recognized by international scientific journals (including Science, and the leading 20% publications).
◎ Improvement in the status of science, international appearance, influence in meetings, and the contributions are unquantifiable.

Reducing the Fleet Size in the Far Seas Fisheries, mitigating the Fishing Pressure on Fisheries Resources
Taiwan’s far seas fisheries have undergone two phases of vessels buyback programs, respectively in 1992 and 2005. The decrease of total catch, following the reduction of fishing efforts, has contributed to the conservation of fisheries resources. The increasing trend on the average catch per vessel will also improve their business viability.

Qianzhen Fishing Port, main base for Taiwan’s far seas fishery
Main target species of far seas fisheries: tunas, squids and Pacific sauries

(5) Achievements in Coherence with International Fisheries Management

Achievements in Coherence with International Fisheries Management
Taiwan was already one of the leading high seas fishing countries in the world during 1990s. Apart from engaging in bilateral fishing cooperation with respective coastal countries, and signing of bilateral fisheries instruments with important fisheries partners, such as the USA and Japan. In multilateral level, through years of efforts, Taiwan is a member of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), and a member of extended commission of the Commission on the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT). Taiwan is also a cooperating non-member of International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), and Taiwan has been actively participating in the work of the Indian Ocean Tunas Commission (IOTC). With the work done in the respective RFMOs, Taiwan has been accorded fishing limits or quota in the respective fisheries management organizations. In addition, Taiwan has participated in the negotiations of the conventions for the establishment of non-tuna management organizations, namely, the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO) and the North Pacific Fisheries Commission (NPFC), and eligible to become their member upon entering into force of the conventions.

Participation in international organizations

Signing of the Arrangement for the Participation of Fishing Entities of WCPFC on 5 Sept. 2000 by Agriculture Deputy Minister Hu Sing Hwa (then Fisheries Director-General)

In addition, Taiwan hosted a number of international conferences, including the annual meetings of CCSBT, APEC Fisheries Working Group meetings, annual meetings of the International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-Like Species in the North Pacific Ocean (ISC), and the Fifth International Fishers Forum on Marine Spatial Planning and Bycatch Mitigation (IFF5)

Signing of the Arrangement for the Participation of Fishing Entities with chair of the negotiating conference of SPRFMO on 14 Nov. 2009 by Director-General James Sha

Hosting of International Conferences

The Fifth International Fishers Forum was co-hosted by the governments of Taiwan and USA, the first occasion ever documented:
The Fifth International Fishers Forum was held on 3-5 August 2010 in Taipei, with discussions focusing on international approach on marine spatial planning and bycatch mitigation.

More than 300 participants attended the meeting. They included 28 government officials (5 fisheries ministers, 2 fisheries directors, and a number of fisheries high ranking officers and advisors), representatives from inter-governmental organizations, namely IATTC, SEAFDEC, and PNA, World Ocean Council, Chinese Cetaceans Society, Birds Taiwan, Greenpeace, WWF, TRAFFIC, ISSF, MSC, and foreign and local fishers groups.

IFF5 in session in 2010

Taipei Declaration adopted in IFF5

The conference was closed with a presentation of the Taipei Declaration jointly by James Sha, Director-General, Taiwan Fisheries Agency and Kitty Simonds, Executive Director, Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council, USA, emphasizing 12 actions to be taken in cross-sectoral marine spatial planning and bycatch mitigation in the declaration, which would be transmitted to UNESCO, CBD, WOC, UN Secretary-General, FAO and the five tuna RFMOs for their references.

Hosting of CCSBT annual meetings
The Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT) is the only tuna-RFMO whose function is to focus on the conservation of a single tuna species, southern bluefin tuna. In 2002, Taiwan became a member of the extended commission of CCSBT, enjoying the same rights and obligations in the conservation of this tuna species, as well as sharing of fishing quota. The annual meetings of CCSBT were respectively held in 2005 and 2010 in Taipei, with officials of the Fisheries Agency serving as chair.

CCSBT annual meeting in 2005

Hosting of APEC meetings
Taiwan became a member of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in 1991. Since then, Taiwan has been actively participating in various activities of the organization. In order to adapt the impact of extreme climate to global fisheries and aquaculture, and lesson learning and experience sharing of the mitigating strategies of member economies, Taiwan hosted the “Seminar on Sharing the Experiences of Mitigating the Impact of Extreme Climate on Aquaculture and Fisheries” in Taipei on 21-23 March 2012. 80 officials and experts from 18 member economies attended the meeting.

Participating in APEC Ocean-related Ministerial Meeting (AOMM)
Between 2005 and 2007, representative of Taiwan was elected Lead Shepherd of APEC Fisheries Working Group. During the tenure of Lead Shepherd, Taiwan hosted the APEC Fisheries Working Group meetings, and assisted Indonesia in hosting AOMM2. In October 2010, Agriculture Deputy Minister Hu Sing Hwa led Taiwan delegation to participate in AOMM3 held in Paracas, Peru.

In October 2010, Agriculture Deputy Minister Hu Sing Hwa led Taiwan delegation to participate in AOMM3 held in Paracas, Peru.

International Achievements in the Conservation of Fisheries Resources
Under the stringent management measures adopted by respective RFMOs, there were signs of recovery in some of the overfished stocks. Take North Atlantic Swordfish as an example, its biomass declined since1980, and reached all time low in 1999. Following recovery plan including measures such as catch limit control, requirement of VMS on vessels, and statistical document scheme, promoted by the Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), the biomass of the stock restored its healthy condition.

(6) Achievements on Maritime Enforcement and Maritime Service of the Coast Guard Administration

Achievements on Maritime Enforcement and Maritime Service of the Coast Guard Administration

Achievements on Maritime Enforcement and Maritime Service of the Coast Guard Administration
The jurisdiction of the Coast Guard Administration covers sea areas of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu. It is on full duty round the clock, protecting the security of a coastline of 1,819.8 kilometers in length and sea of 540,300 square kilometers in area.

Maritime Enforcement

Taiwan’s waters of jurisdiction overlap with those of Japan, the Philippines and the Mainland China. Incidents of expulsion or arrest of Taiwan’s fishing vessels within the areas unilaterally claimed by them occurs. Due to severe overfishing in the coastal waters of the Mainland China, irregular fishing incidents of fishing vessels intruding into Taiwan’s waters increased, thus undermining the fishing right of Taiwan’s fishermen. In order to protect the maritime interest of Taiwan, and for the sake of sustainable fisheries resources and safe operations of fishermen, the Coast Guard Administration has been actively conducting maritime surveillance to prevent Taiwan’s fishing vessels from interference of foreign government vessels within area bounded by the temporary enforcement line, in accordance with “Standard Operating Procedure of Fishery Protection” and area under “the Temporary Enforcement Line”, and strengthening the enforcement efforts on the incursion of foreign vessels, to promote conservation and management of fisheries resources.

Statistics on Marine Surveillance in EEZ in 2011
Area Trips Person/trips mobilized
Northern EEZ 177 5,490
Eastern EEZ 85 2,093
Southern EEZ 160 5,510
Total 422 13,093
Statistics on Violation Cases of Damaging Coastal Resources
Year No. of Cases No. of Offenders
2010 274 548
2011 192 487

Maritime Services
The surrounding seas of Taiwan have diverse geographic environments and abundant marine ecologies. Following social and cultural changes, there has been increasing trend for the general public to get close to the sea, thus leading to abuse of marine biotic resources and maritime activities, as well as growing incidents of marine pollution. Meanwhile, due to insufficient regulatory measures on marine activities, the life and properties of people are facing new challenges. Surrounded by sea, Taiwan’s viability and development are closely attached to the sea. In the advent of the ocean era of the 21st century, in order to ensure sustainable development in marine environment and biodiversity, the Coast Guard Administration will enhance its capability in marine lifesaving, to protect the life and properties of the people, and strive to implement the work of environmental protection, sustainable ecological development, provision of fishery services to solve the problems of fishermen, whereby restoring marine resources, and creating the development vision of an ocean State, that is “ecology, prosperity and safety”.

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